When a teenager decides that he does not want to give into peer pressure, it can be termed as both psychosocial and cognitive development. According to Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development, individuals undergo psychosocial development during their adolescence (Cherry, 2010). This is the fifth stage of psychosocial development, whereby an adolescent begins to explore his/her independence as well as developing a sense of self. Erikson refers to this stage as identity vs. confusion stage (Cherry, 2010). This is because it is in this stage where an individual gains autonomy to develop his/her identity. The stage involves personal exploration to develop a feeling and a sense of independence and control. Therefore, when a teenager decides that he does not want to give into peer pressure, it indicates that the teenager is gaining autonomy to develop his identity, as well as using personal exploration to develop a sense of independence.
Cognitive development involves development of an individual’s though processes, and it occurs from the infancy stage to adolescence. It entails development of intelligence, conscious thinking, and problem-solving skills (Child Psychology, 2011). Therefore, when a teenager decides to refrain from peer influence, it shows that the teenager is undergoing cognitive development by applying conscious thinking to make decisions. In this case, the teenager appears to be aware that peer influence has negative consequences. This is part of cognitive development where the thought processes of an individual, influences the way he/she interacts with the world (Child Psychology, 2011).
To illustrate psychosocial and cognitive developments in an individual, we use an example of a 10 years old school-going boy, who is a good dancer. While in school during his break-time, the boy gathers a group of his classmates and teaches them how to dance. This can be termed as stage four of psychosocial development where a child develops a sense of pride in his/her abilities. Children develop this sense through social interactions. This can also be termed as cognitive development since the boy is able to recognize his ability, and as he demonstrates and teaches his skills to other children, he develops more intelligence.