1. According to “Dishonesty in Academics and Business: A Cross-Cultural Evaluation of Student Attitudes” by Grimes, how do American students’ standards of honesty compare to students in post-Soviet transitional economies?
The student’s honesty in Americans is very high s they do not get involved in cheating, they are disciplined though not one hundred percent as compared to students in the post soviet society. This makes the American students are higher than the ones in the post soviet economies.
2. According to “Dishonesty in Academics and Business: A Cross-Cultural Evaluation of Student Attitudes” by Grimes, how do students view workplace dishonesty compared to academic dishonesty?
According to dishonesty in academics and business, students view workplace dishonesty to academic dishonesty in such that having workplace dishonesty may have arose from academic dishonesty especially if students had unethical behavior in college. According to Grimes 2004; Harding et al 2004 they suggest that the role of higher education is to train leaders of tomorrow. If students have unethical behavior in college, they are likely to carry those behaviors up to workplace. Not only college students who cheat, but also cheating is also common among young and unmarried ones. This can also be attributed to the use of technology especially computers (Whitley 1998).
3. According to In “Dishonesty in Academics and Business: A Cross-Cultural Evaluation of Student Attitudes” by Grimes, what were some of the ways the U.S. was more extreme than any of the post-Soviet transitional economies with reference to cheating?
The international survey of college students examined the student perceptions and dishonesty towards dishonesty. They say that academic cheating is common with students in the US and those in central Asia and Eastern Europe. They went further and said that academic cheating is socially accepted. Students in the US and those in the transitional economies view dishonesty in a business setting as severe that than in academic. Comparing the American student with those in post Soviet transitional economies, the American ones apply a higher standard of honesty both in academics and in a business setting.
4. In “Dishonesty in Academics and Business: A Cross-Cultural Evaluation of Student Attitudes” to what does Grimes attribute the differences between U.S. and Transitional Economies in attitudes towards and prevalence of cheating?
According to the survey on the profile student sample by nation, the sample had one thousand and ninety seven students in which, seven hundred and twenty three were from the transitional economies and three seventy four were from USA. The following differences were shown: Students in transitional economies were a year older than those of the US, there is a significant variation in gender mix with students in the transitional economies whereby the male students ranges from 15.38% in Belarus to 61.70% in Kyrgyzstan, while in the US the sample showed evenly balanced 48.13% males, students who held a college degree in the transitional economies were smaller relative to the ones in the US, in the transitional economies, students had a lower employment rate than those, in the US, with respect to religious behavior, the US students who are reported to have attended a religious service are more than those in the transitional economies.
5. According to “Academic dishonesty in higher education—a nationwide study in Taiwan” by Lin and Wen, why might Taiwan be different from the U.S.? What evidence does THEIR STUDY find to support this?
A sample of Taiwan students were selected and surveyed. The findings were that, the prevalence rate for dishonesty behaviors was 61.72%. the most practiced dishonesty behaviors are provided paper and even the students doing an assignment for other students, they give prohibited helps to others in their assignment, copying others assignments, passing answers to others.; female students had less academic dishonesty than males. Freshmen had more dishonest individuals than other ranks, Davis et al. (1992) and Whitley et al. (1999). With the US cheating is less compared to that in Taiwan.
6. According to “Academic dishonesty in higher education—a nationwide study in Taiwan” by Lin and Wen, how did cheating practices differ by gender? Why do they suggest this might be expected?
In relation to gender, the domestic females were reported to be willing to be reporting cheating to their teachers more than males. The domestic students would ignore the behavior in the US compared to international students. This has been attributed to the fact of sex socialization. Despite this study, Whitley, Wiese, and Harvey (1998) have suggested contrary in that men are the ones who are likely to self-report since they have a higher propensity to engage in bad behavior than women. At the same time, Tibbetts (1999 p. 334), found that men’s intentions were influenced positively by the past cheating behavior whereas women were inhibited by moral beliefs. Smyth, Davis, and Kroncke (2009), in a study of cheating scenarios, says that women gave a big scenario as more unethical than men, hence the difference between genders.
7. Discuss the relationship between cheating and year in school as described in “Academic dishonesty in higher education—a nationwide study in Taiwan” by Lin and Wen.
With the year, freshmen were unaware of increasing falsifying documents of the school such as permits so, they did not kwon how to. With the senior class who knew about the school proper, they were likely to get involved in cheating. So, the more one stayed in school the more the increased chances of cheating than those fresh students who would not even know where to locate well the school documents.
8. According to “AnExamination ofthe Relationship Between Academic Dishonesty and WorkplaceDishonesty: A Multicampus Investigation” by Nonis and Swift characterize the scale at which workplace dishonesty troubles the American economy?
Workplace performance affects the US economy as impacts negatively on the educators whereby the wrong citizens would be given out hence affecting their character development, moral leadership, service to society (King and Mayhew 2002). The people produced to the economy are; therefore, not worthy in terms of providing for labor, tranquility in workplaces would be reduced and thus lower the performance of the people. This implies that labor productivity and hence efficiency would be affected heavily.
9. According to “AnExamination ofthe Relationship Between Academic Dishonesty and WorkplaceDishonesty: A Multicampus Investigation” by Nonis and Swift, what is the relationship between believing behavior to be socially acceptable and engaging in that same behavior?
Believing in behavior to be socially acceptable is related to engaging in that behavior as per Nonis and Swift. This helps individuals work together since they practice things and furthermore engage in them. This helps the social organization of people and hence improves their performance in what they engage in.
10. According to “AnExamination ofthe Relationship Between Academic Dishonesty and WorkplaceDishonesty: A Multicampus Investigation” by Nonis and Swift, what is the relationship between academic dishonesty and workplace dishonesty?
Nonis and Swift mean that cheating is not situation specific. Somebody has to be involved fully in it. It also means that someone can cheat anywhere and not only at certain situations. It depends on what the person is subjected to and; therefore, one can cheat at any point hence cheating is not situation specific.
11. In “AnExamination ofthe Relationship Between Academic Dishonesty and WorkplaceDishonesty: A Multicampus Investigation” what do Nonis and Swiftmean when they say that cheating is not situation specific?
Cheating has changed from having students cheating using crib notes, looking over someone’s shoulder during exam time, students having hidden documented notes in the tank, toilet, and bathroom, in the brim of baseball caps and even up to their sleeves. They also store information in graphing calculators, cell phones and other electronic devices.
12. According to “Cheating in Academic Institutions: A Decade of Research” by McCabe, Trevino, and Butterfield, describe several ways cheating has changed since the 1960s.
Students in the code institutions are supposed to report any violations in cheating cases especially on their own behavior. The findings are similar to those conducted by McCabe and Bowers, 1964. Students in code institutions are reluctant in reporting cheating by themselves or others. A case presented by K.M.May and Loyd (1993). Students in the non code institutions were not supposed to report any violations neither did they become reluctant by themselves or others.
13. According to “Cheating in Academic Institutions: A Decade of Research” by McCabe, Trevino, and Butterfield, besides cheating less, how did students at “code” institutions differ from those at non-code institutions?
Students cheating behavior is normally influenced by the fact that they are not caught up. Before the introduction of computers, cheating was inherent in paper and at the same time in the pencil tests. The fact that also computer based scores are not widely used encourages the cheating behavior. Lack of proper and well defined consequences of cheating also encourage s the cheating among students.
14. According to “Cheating in Academic Institutions: A Decade of Research” by McCabe, Trevino, and Butterfield, what is the most powerful influence on students’ cheating behavior?
Honor codes should be more than window codes since they create culture integrity, create a strong sense of moral community, they help to promote academic integrity even in judicial systems. This has been facilitated by the continued use in order to foster culture integrity. The honor codes are helpful since they have a provision for unproctored exams; it also requires that students sigh against the pledges thus resulting to improving their integrity of their work.
15. What do McCabe, Trevino, and Butterfield mean when they say that “honor codes must be more than mere ‘window dressing’” (p.224)?
Contract cheating refers to a situation where students submit their work to students for academic research in which case they pay contractors to write for them. It is hard to detect contract cheating since the use of detectives like the search engine such as Turnltln and code scanner such as JPlag does not detect cheating. The sites from which the document was copied from will not be available.
16. According to “Eliminating the successor to plagiarism? Identifying the usage of contract cheating sites” by Clarke and Lancaster, what is contract cheating? Why and how does contract cheating pose a unique problem for detection?
College students perceive that cheating in the work place is very offensive. They do not remember that they are the ones who started practicing it while in school. With regard to ethnicity, students concern themselves more with business ethics than the personal ethics. This is of great concern as it raises the need for students into sharpening their ethical decision skills. The major interest is on the beliefs in relation to the academic setting. Importances of student’s beliefs in ethics are that one; today’s students are tomorrow’s business people, it will influence students on what they take when they enter the business world. So students should get a full frame of what they are expected of so as to be a better future business people once they enter the industry.
17. According to “Is Classroom Cheating Related to Business Students’ Propensity to Cheat in the ‘Real World’?” by Lawson, what is the “paradox” regarding college students’ attitudes toward dishonesty in the workplace and the prevalence of academic dishonesty? How might this be related to the ethicality of cheating versus its practicality? How can it be understand in terms of “framing” of the issue and information asymmetry?
According to Lawson, the propensity of students cheating in academics and again in a business setting are related in that one acquires characteristics which are transferable from one setting to the other. The desire to cheat in a business setting is very high when one has been cheating from the academic setting.
18. According to “Is Classroom Cheating Related to Business Students’ Propensity to Cheat in the ‘Real World’?” by Lawson, how is propensity and attitudes toward cheating in an academic setting related to propensity and attitudes toward cheating in a business setting?
A factor analysis has identified that cheaters scored higher than non cheaters. False excuse makers scored higher also than other students. At the same time men scored higher than women on issues of subsistence use, illegal actions thus resulting to unreliability. The non academicians are, therefore, the ones who are shining when it comes to performance. The students who do not cheat on tests or in the homework are not involved in deviant activities.
19. According to “Relation of General Deviance to Academic Dishonesty” by Blankenship and Whitley, what non-academic deviant behaviors correlated to cheating or using false excuses to avoid taking an exam?
In the general perceptions and tendencies of Lupton and Chapman, Russian students will continue to cheat more especially when they find that those who cheat earn higher marks in class; there are no mechanisms of being caught up since they practice cheating. They find it had to do their assignments and so the best way to do them is by giving tenders who do for them, and they get paid.
20. According to “Russian and American college students’ attitudes, perceptions and tendencies towards cheating” by Lupton and Chapman, what factors might cast doubt on Russian students reporting that they cheat more?
The Russian and the American students with regard to Lupton and Chapman (2002) shows that the attitude of these students is an academic misconduct and the two are not different, and they can be culturally are determined. Penalties are different in Iran compared to America. They came up with the body specifically for initiating the rules that is the supreme council of the Cultural Revolution. Handing over of exam results and receiving them was considered as a form of dishonesty. Russia has a higher percentage of respondents than USA especially on cultural differences.
21. What would be the implications of an article like “Russian and American college students’ attitudes, perceptions and tendencies towards cheating” by Lupton and Chapman, for a multi-cultural learning environment such as UCLA.
One can become deliquescent through the following techniques such as those of committing crimes, motives, drives and others that go against law abiding actions. They reduce the control over deliquescence in the following five techniques; deny of responsibility, injury denial, victim denial, condemning of condemners and they also appeal to big loyalties.
22. According to “Techniques of Neutralization: A Theory of Delinquency” by Sykes and Matza, how does one become delinquent?
Condemnation of condemners. This is whereby the offenders maintain the ones who condemn on their offense and that they do it out of spite and not shifting off themselves unfairly.
23. Which one of Sykes and Matza’s neutralization techniques is represented in the following quote: My friend’s lab partner just gave me her results I didn’t even ask for them. I certainly didn’t intend to cheat. It just happened.
Denial of injury. This is taken to mean that actions never resulted to any harm or injury, but they left the person at the original indifference curve.
24. Which one of Sykes and Matza’s neutralization techniques is represented in the following quote: The last time I cheated was three months ago. I took my notes out of my backpack because I forgot what something was for the test. It didn’t improve my grade much; so, it didn’t affect the curve.
Appeal to higher authorities. Is a situation where the rules of society take a different direction regarding demands?
25. Which one of Sykes and Matza’s neutralization techniques is represented in the following quote: I cheated earlier this quarter in my lab class. It really improved my grade but, even though it’s on a curve, it’s only fair. Most of the others don’t work anywhere close to as much as I do, if at all. I know a couple of them told me their parents paid for everything, even movies!
Denial of responsibility. Someone here is pulled by the situation of which are beyond that person’s reach.
26. Which one of Sykes and Matza’s neutralization techniques is represented in the following quote: The last time I cheated was in a chemistry class, and it was so hard. I think I saw others cheat too, but I wouldn’t dare talk about it with them. Even if, they were cheating too, they’d turn you in just to get ahead. They’re that competitive! It’s sad the world has to be that way.
According to the relations among Religion, motivation, and College Cheating by Rettinger and Jordan, the majors have mostly cheated since they are the people who know more but the juniors do not cheat since they know very little.
27. Which one of Sykes and Matza’s neutralization techniques is represented in the following quote: I cheated last October. I hated myself for doing it but I had no choice. My dad worked nights to pay for my college, and if I didn’t pass that class I might not have graduated. I just couldn’t do that to him.
Rettinger and Jordan have shown how grade orientation relates to cheating. If one wants better grade in school, he has to get involved in cheating either through copying from friends, use of phones or giving out assignments to be done by other people. This might result to plagiarism
28. According to “The Relations among Religion, Motivation, and College Cheating: A Natural Experiment” by Rettinger and Jordan, which majors have cheated (according to self-reporting) the most?
Religious believes have little influence when it comes to cheating. They consider school work more than this believes and; therefore, even if one is a stronger believer, that fellow can still cheat.
29. According to “The Relations among Religion, Motivation, and College Cheating” by Rettinger and Jordan, how does grade orientation relate to cheating?
A confounding variable is used in statistics. It relates between the dependent and independent variables either negatively or positively. It is; therefore, an extraneous variable. Rettinger and Jordan explains that religiosity and cheating are related negatively in the sense that religion and cheating are two and independent things. Somebody especially in school cannot stop cheating because he or she belongs to a certain religion whatsoever.
30. According to “The Relations among Religion, Motivation, and College Cheating: A Natural Experiment” by Rettinger and Jordan, how does religiosity relate to cheating? Discuss the confounding effect of grade orientation.
Grade orientation increases self reported cheating. Religiosity is strongly related to reduced reports concerning cheating. This is due to the effect of religion on cheating rates that are self reported. This affected by the content of their course, which reduces grade orientation.
31. What is a confounding variable? Explain how Rettinger and Jordan’s study motivation was a confounding variable to the relationship between religiosity and cheating and how they made sense of this finding.
A confounding variable is an extraneous variable used in statistics. It gives the relationship between the depended variable and the independent variable either through experimental design so as to avoid committing of errors. From the theory of Rettifer and Jordan, they surveyed students regarding the theories of motivation in relation to religion. They discovered that there exists a strong relationship. Among the religious students, more religiosity correlates to report on cheating which are much reduced in all disciplines. This is as a result of uniqueness in religion especially on the cheating rates.
32. According to Professor Grannis’ lectures how is cheating social?
Cheating is behavior that can affect many students. This behavior is transferred from one student to another and many are expelled due to cheating.
33. According to the article by Haines, Diekhoff, LaBeff, and Clark, what three fundamental factors underlie most academic cheating behavior?
The three key factors underlying cheating behavior in academically are lack of commitment by the student, immaturity of the students and lack of positive attitude towards academic matters or known as neutralized attitude.