• Margins are to be set in the 1 – 1.5″ range.
  • In order to make a paper easy to read, such fonts as Times New Roman or Palatino are to be used.
  • The size of the applied font should not be less than 10 pt. (12 pt. is the best option).
  • Double spacing is to be applied to the whole text. However,
  • Figure captions, table titles, and block quotes are to be single-spaced.
  • The quotes consisting of more than five lines should be blocked.
  • It is unnecessary to take a block quote into the quotation marks.
  • A blocked quote should be preceded and followed by an additional line.
  • It is required to indent blocked quotes at .5″.
  • Single spacing is to be applied to bibliography and notes. Still, there should be an additional line between the mentioned items.
  • Numbering should start from the first page. Use Arabic numbers and place them in the running head.
  • Create subheadings if your paper is lengthy.
  •  It is advised to set up your own format. However, be consistent in arranging your paper.
  • Check the “Headings” section to consider recommendations for the Turabian style.
  • The subheadings are to be preceded and followed by an additional line. No periods should be placed at the end.

Key Paper Parts

Cover Page

  • Your paper should have a title page. However, a title may be placed on the first page of your work. Follow the directions presented below to organize the title page properly:
  • Center the title on the third down the page.
  • Your name and data about your school should be published a few lines below the title.
  • A subtitle should be placed right below the title. In this case, a title line should end with a colon.


  • Capitalize bibliography, titles in the document, and notes by using the “headline type.” The first words of both titles and subtitles and any other essential words are to be capitalized.
  • Put the titles in the document and notes, and bibliography in the italics or quotation marks according to the type of the named piece.
  • Italicize the titles of periodicals and books.
  • Put the titles of chapters and articles in double quotation marks.
  • Alternatively, reduce the use of capitalization to minimum.
  • For instance, use lowercase letters to feature periods, proper nouns excluded, e.g. “the colonial period” versus “the Vietnam era.”
  • Quotations of more than 5 lines should be blocked. Apply single spacing and avoid using quotation marks. Leave additional line right before and after the block quote. Quotation should be indented at .5″ (the same way as starting a new paragraph).

References or Bibliography

  • The list of sources should be titled as “References” (author date style) or “Bibliography” (bibliography and notes style).
  • Separate “References” or “Bibliography” from the first item with two blank lines.
  • The following items should be separated from each other with one blank line.
  • Arrange the sources in the alphabetical order in accordance with the first word of each item.
  • The conjunction “and” is to be used instead of “&” for the entries with multiple authors.
  • If there are two or three authors, indicate all names.
  • If the number of authors ranges from 4 to 10, indicate all of them in the Bibliography. Parenthetical citations and notes should include the name of the first author plus “et al.”
  • If no author is known, cite the source by using its title in References and in the contracted form (about four words) in parenthetical citations within the document.
  • Publishers’ names are to be written fully.
  • Use access date only if there is no publication date.
  • Write “n.d.” if you cannot confirm the publication date of a printed source.
  • If possible, indicate DOI instead of URL.
  • If there is no a page number, use volume (vol.), equation (eq.), note (n.) or section (sec.).


  • Start the note numbers with “1” and present them successively throughout the text.
  • Superscript the note numbers in the text.
  • Place the note numbers at the end of the phrase they are referring to and after any punctuation marks.
  • The note numbers should be of full size and followed by the period in the notes section (superscripted note numbers can be also used).
  • Indent the first line of footnotes at .5″ from the left margin.
  • The following lines within the footnotes should be left aligned.
  • There should be an additional line between the footnotes.
  • Commentaries are to be placed after documentation if the footnote includes both. Separate the items with the period.
  • Put a semicolon between documentation and concise commentaries in parenthetical citations.
  • Avoid repeating a hundreds digit in the page numbers if it remains the same within the whole range.


There are five levels of headings in the Chicago style.

Types of Format

  1. Centered, Bold or Italicized, Headline type, Capitalized
  2. Centered, Regular Font, Headline type, Capitalized
  3. Left-aligned, Regular Font, Bold or Italicized, Headline type, Capitalized
  4. Left-aligned, Roman Font, Capitalized (sentence style)
  5. Presented at the beginning of a paragraph without any following blank lines, bold, or italicized, Capitalized (sentence style), period.

Figures and Diagrams

  • Present the figures and diagrams after the paragraph which they are discussed in.
  • The used source is to be cited in the “source line” at the bottom of the presented figure or diagram.
  • Introduce the source line with the word Source(s). Put a colon after it and end it with a period.
  • The source should be cited in the same way as it would be in the parenthetical citation. Exclude the parentheses. Provide full data in the item on the Reference list.
  • Adapted sources should be acknowledged properly, i.e. information adapted from….
  • Number each diagram. Its short title should be left-aligned above the diagram.
  • Figures should be numbered. A caption should be aligned to the left below the figure.
  • Figures and diagrams are to be numbered separately in the way they are mentioned in the paper.
  • Diagrams and figures presented in your work should be recognized by a number, e.g., “on the diagram 2.”