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The method in which a forest is cut down, burned or damaged or destroyed is called "deforestation." Deforestation takes place in different processes. People are cutting down, burning, or otherwise damaging the rain forests by using different methods and various reasons for sustaining in the tropical regions of the world. The vast area of rain forest cut down is vacant for agricultural exercise like the rummaging of cattle, and the planting of crops. The process of "slash and burn" agriculture is applied by the poor peasants in a small area of the rainforests; on the other hand, the modern agricultural system deforests larger scale, sometimes deforesting several square miles at a time. Throughout the tropics, rain forests are being cut down. The rainforest is an ecosystem that grips a particularly various group of plants and animals. Rainforests once roofed 14% of the earth's land surface; now they cover a mere 6% and experts estimate that the last remaining rainforests could be consumed in less than 40 years. Even though we may not be able to bring back the rainforest land that we have already destroyed, we can save the land that is there now. Any rainforest took thousands of years for it to become the way it is, and it stood peacefully up until last century.

The inputs of a rainforest are the Ecosystem, and the outputs are what material is lost by the process of deforestation. Plants and animals and their living and non-living environment are the main parts of an ecosystem that is totally interrelated In an ecosystem there would be stores of energy. In this case the example of stores is the people and the trees in the rainforest. Any rainforest trees may be built up of layers like, Amazon rainforest. There are the four kind layers of a rainforest in the Amazon rainforest. Monkeys, birds, bats and butterflies are found on the first layer of the rainforests; while the jaguars, red-eyed tree frogs and leopards are lived in the last layer, which is called the scrub layer.

The Amazon Rainforest, probable to have been shaped 500 to 200 million years ago, is the largest rainforest left of earth around Brazil. The Amazon Rainforest has been an important asset to people for foods and species all over the world which are derived from the rainforest. By the deforestation of the rainforests, the planet’s foods would be decreased and bland. With thousand of different plant, animal, and insect species living in the rainforests, when these forest are cleared, numerous species are destroyed.

Why Deforestation happens in the Rainforest

People began cutting it down for the economical advancement of their country, many people are still unaware of the impact this will cause. Some of the reasons deforestation occurs are population growth and logging. The tropical rainforest has been subjugated in many ways, people also desire to search the rainforest to compose or put up their own manufacturing within the rainforest. There are many groups who enjoyed better benefit in the rainforest, such as the loggers find out valued hard wood from the rare trees; the cattle ranchers; they want bigger farms for they’re up coming cattle; the miners, they clear the areas for building roads and mines; the settlers come and make their own space, they come to farm and make their own food; and the indigenous people, they have experience on; slash and burn’ agriculture. They cut down the trees which don’t grow again for up to 50 years and more. The biggest issue concerning deforestation in the rainforest of any countries like the Amazon of Brazilian is an economic one. There is such a large amount of global interest in the rainforest, such as the loggers who exploit the rainforest for timber, rubber.

Result of The deforestation of rainforest

A general overview of the problem of deforestation of rainforest lands (Albrecht, p. 17), which is the biggest problem that caused by rainforest deforestation. Global panic has mounted because of the destruction of tropical rain forests. By the deforestation of the rainforest, we are losing not only beautiful areas, but also the losses strike deeper. “This has often led to overuse of range land or deforestation of rainforest area. Thus generating environmental concerns including the impacts on water” ‎(Hui and Nip, p. 576). Deforestation instigates the extermination of many genus and changes in our global climate. It is abundantly clear that the expanding human population is causing extinction in many ways - through deforestation of rainforest; pollution of the atmosphere, soils and water with agrochemicals; by causing climate change, and acid rain, and by many other means ((Poore, p. 79). If the world prolongs at the present tempo of deforestation, the world's rain forests will be vanished within 100 years-- causing indefinite effects to the global climate and the eradication of the preponderance of plant and animal species on the earth. The deforestation of the rainforest, however, affects a much larger area (Haller, et., al., p. 316).

Moreover, the deforestation of rainforest is affecting traditional harvesting of forest products, fishing and hunting. ... Habitat and community modification (Barthem, p. 64). Deforestation of the Rainforest has a negative impact on the indigenous people of the area (Pettit and Starbird). The deforestation of rainforest areas inhabited by Amazonian Indians accelerated global warming and diminishes biodiversity (Brysk, p.13). The influence of ranching on deforestation of rainforest areas, especially in Central America, Mexico, and Brazil is one of the more disreputable negative. Benson states the situation of the deforestation as follows:

“Deforestation of the highlands for firewood, of the rainforests for valuable hardwoods, and of both to clear land for agricultural use has led to severe erosion, causing soil to deteriorate and get blown off the mountains or washed away down the rivers. Deforestation of the rainforest has caught international attention among the environmentally aware (though fixing it remains problematic). But in the highlands, where many people live, deforestation and overgrazing are also severe problems. The soil needs its protective cover of Andean woodlands and puna grasslands.” (p. 56).

Deforestation is the vast concern at hand but other problems are pertinent to as well, including global warming, reduction in bio- diversity and species loss. Twenty per cent of global warming is a consequence of man-made activities or deforestation of the rainforest. Deforestation in developing countries accounts for between 7 and 31 percent of global carbon dioxide emissions, which cause climate changes indirectly. Today the forest is fragmented; a large part is irreversibly damaged and has shrunk to 30% of the original covered area. Land tenure has also radically changed. Over 30 years ago the Oriente was used exclusively by indigenous people ( Haller, et., al., p. 316).

As agricultural expanded, wooded lands were cleared  (Young, p. 22). A loss of biodiversity will commence to be perceptible within this century. Where an acre of woodland in the northeastern United States might include a dozen different kinds of trees, a typical acre of rainforest may have as many as 300 (Hornaday, 1993, 29). In addition to that there is the biodiversity issue. Researcher Howard Facklam states,

"It was estimated at one point in the 1980s that such forest lands were being cleared at the rate of 50 acres a minute; another estimate put the rate at more than 200,000 sq km (more than 78,000 sq mi) a year. In 1993, satellite data provided the rate of deforestation could result in the extinction of as many as 750,000 species, which would mean the loss of a multiplicity of products: food, fibers, medical drugs, dyes, gums, and resins" (Facklam, 1990, 53).

Many species are in threat as well for the deforestation of the rainforest. Even though the specialists can not identify accurately how many species rove the Planet, the Global BioDiversity Assessment, a UN-sponsored report in which about 1000 scientists have had a hand, gives a good working estimation of between 13 and 14 million species. In Australia, as is the case globally, much of the publicity and popular sentiment is focused on the deforestation of rainforest and tall forests. (Young, p. 22). With the continuing elimination of its defending cover, the soil’s quality, never good to begin with, is rapidly deteriorating. Brazil plans 70 dams in 20 years, which will flood 100000 miles of rainforest (Dewar, p.37). Benson shows that

“This erosion has led to decreased water quality, particularly in the Amazon basin, where silt-laden water is unable to support microoganisms at the base of the food chain. Other water-related problems include pollution from mining in the highlands and from industrial waste and sewage along the coast. Because of sewage contamination, many beaches around Lima and coastal cities have been declared unfit for swimming. Coastal pollution, combined with overfishing, is a serious threat to Peru’s rich marine resources, as is El Nino effect.”   (p. 57).

Although deforestation has been beneficial to humanity for different causes, the speedy acceleration of deforestation, especially in the Amazon Rainforest region, has caused abundant global climate changes, mostly in the water cycle and greenhouse effect.

Conclusion

The rainforest is an ecosystem that holds an extremely diverse array of plants and animals. The rainforest are brewing gradually thousands of years for it to become the way it is, and it stood peacefully up until last century. But now the people began cutting it down for the economical development of their country, many people are still unaware of the impact what will consequence of the deforestation of the rainforest. There are some reasons behinds on the deforestation, like population growth and logging. The major matters relating to the deforestation process of the rainforest is an economic one. The cutting and logging made benefit the country’s economy directly, but unfortunately they are in turn devastating the earth’s environment. We must stop deforestation of the rainforest; because for millions of years, the world’s rainforests have facilitated in development of lifestyles of the people and it is also the house of millions of creatures and it also keeps the role as a filter for the whole world.

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