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The case of globalized labor is an article by an American journalist who lived in Nairobi and adopted the lifestyles of the Kenyan citizens. The manner with which he rationalizes his low pay to the workers he has employed in his estate is irrational. He boasts of the amount he spends on his meals being more than the combined amount he pays his workers. This is a sign of disrespect to the people who make his life easier during his stay in the country. He rationalizes the idea that there is a connection between the low wages he pays his employees and those who work in the factories in China. People have globalized capital, yet are not ready to globalize capital and pay all employees a standard wage rate.

The author of the article states his observations in the piece of writing, and though it seems unfair and illogical, there is some truth in his claims. African workers it is true that workers in some of the less developed countries tend to sell their labor a lot lower than the global market value. This is because they lack alternatives and other means of financing their livelihoods. The author notes that there is a moral stink whereby rights are granted differently based on differing criteria that are increasingly becoming arbitrary.

The author presents his claims in a systematic and sensible manner, and uses examples from across the world to define his cause, and state the case of globalized labor. He also notes that the rates of immigrants in the world have changed because individuals are on the search for better opportunities and chances in the world. Citizenship has become increasingly easy to acquire and change, but the standards in the costs of labor have remained the same. Immigration policies have remained the same, and the ease with which one can attain and pass citizenship onto their children has remained the same.

His allusion to the manner with which the South African government stripped some national of their citizenship in some of the independence areas, is a classic example of the fact that there is a disparity and difference between individuals. He is right in making this allusion and drawing the similarities between the country’s apartheid era and the recent immigration rules. He notes that, while the South Africans were determined to draw boundaries and claim their land, current citizens operate with the already existing boundaries.

In as much as the allusion might be true, the author makes out the African continent to be a cruel home for its people. He forgets to mention that there are different cases in which the continent has made provisions for its citizens. The wages might be low, but there is free flow of labor across regions. It might be different to access this labor across regions, but the local citizens find ample employment in their native areas. To liberalize the free flow of labor would be no different than to liberalize trade. This would have the effects of redistributing the wealth of a nation while having positive effects on the economy.

In an analysis of the disparity in labor costs across countries, the author notes that a worker in the first world would earn 10 times more than an employee in the third world with the same qualifications. I share in the author’s sentiments. There is a need to have a globalized labor market to reduce the wage disparity across nations. It is evident that employees in third world economies are selling their labor short and receiving meager wages as compared to those in the first world. There needs to be avenues to close this gap and ensure that employees receive a generous compensation for their contribution in the labor force.

Caldwell Christopher- Immigration Made America Strong- But it threatened to Ruin Europe.

The author pens with a question of whether Europe is being invaded by a wave of immigrants, or is it just a figment of their feeble political imagination. This is a notion that could have been created by dishonesty, racism and manipulation caused by extremist parties. The European government is worried of the effects of the migration that has been steadily rising over the past two decades. There has been an increase of 71 citizens as a result of immigration. The number of foreign residents in Europe is steadily on the rise, and this could pose a problem to the planning sector in the economy.

The author notes that multi-ethnic society are healthy for the cultural diversity in an economy, but they could pose a problem by putting strains on their trust in government, institutions and the sense of identity on its people. The increasing number of immigrants in the country might lead to a loss in the sense of identity by the nationals, and is a cause for alarm for the planning government. The author has done a thorough background check on the problem that is increasing immigration into the country and is presenting the facts to the audience. There is a collection of all the negative effects that immigration causes to the country. He has made an analysis of the impacts on the society, and tries to lay down the implication of the increase in immigration numbers to the country.

The author has done his research on the problem, and I presenting facts gathered over the years to the reader. It is an informative article because it enlightens and provides information of which the reader was previously not aware. Not every society makes the transition from a single culture to multiculturalism. America has made the transition a lot easier than Europe, the reason why the era has presented the country with an opportunity for revolution. The need to accommodate these immigrants has caused the country to replace the traditional society with a more current one. This society does not differ significantly in culture with that of the immigrants. This is amongst the reasons that have made the transition a success. In Europe, the Muslim culture that encompasses up most of the immigrant, is quite different from that of the natives, hence the reason it has been difficult for the country and society to make the transition into multiculturalism.

Also, another reason that the Americans have had an easy transition is that the Latin culture introduced into their society by the immigrants is viewed as an antiquated version of their culture. T is easier to make the transition between cultures if there are some similarities that make it easier for the cultures to intertwine. There are also differences in lifestyles between immigrants and their natives. They have a whole new set of beliefs, and the manner with which they interact in the society is different.

This article is informative and gives a precise analysis of the reason why immigrants have improved the American society, but done the complete opposite to the European one. It is clear that immigration is on the rise in both continents, but it is the manner with which these cultures will make the transition into multiculturalism that matters towards the improvement of their respective society, the author was precise in identifying the negative causes of immigration that plague the society, and gives some potential solution to help the society cope better.

More Than 1 Billion People Are Hungry in the World But what if the experts are wrong? By Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Duflo 

Hunger is not a new phenomenon in the word, particularly in the less developed countries. Their increasing poverty levels could be the leading cause of hunger and starvation. For most countries in the west, poverty is synonymous with hunger, the United Nation noted in 2009 that the number of hungry people in the world was over one billion, more than a seventy of the total human population. This is a worrying trend because of the lack of access to a vital basic commodity for these individuals. This is a situation that caught the attention of the members in the society because most sought to understand the number of poor people in the society, poverty is thought to be the leading cause of hunger in the world, particularly in the third world countries.

There is, however, the question of whether this number is a depiction of the real number of hungry people in the world, or just an overestimation. This is a study that has led the relevant organization to rural areas and urban slums to get the right number of individuals who go to bed hungry. The number is thought to be too high, and not that many people in the society face the possibility of not having food to eat after a long day. This number might be an overestimation, but there is some truth to the claim that there are numerous hungry people in the society. This is prevalent in the African continent where more than 50% of the population lives under a dollar a day. This means that having meals in a day is a luxury to some of these people, and they have no alternative source of finding food.

The story of poverty and hunger, and their relation to each other is far more complex than anyone might imagine. Statistics cannot even begin to explain the severity of the situation that is hunger in the society. In some of these societies, more money does not translate to more food. Making the price of food cheaper does also not guarantee more food in the homesteads that have the problem of hunger. The author deviates from the norm and gives an in-depth analysis of the problem that has plagued the society; a problem prevalent in the less developed countries due to their high poverty levels. The UN has conducted their survey on the number of hungry people in the society, but there is a concern that the number might be too high.

Abhijit Banerjee and Esther Duflo tackle an issue that is too sensitive to the society, and offer insight into an issue that requires global attention. This article analyses some of the measures taken to ensure that there is enough food in these communities to reduce hunger. However, the people can rely on foreign aid for so long. Rather than being dependent on foreign aid, the communities affected by the problem of hunger might look into more sustainable ways of keeping their citizenry away from hunger. Although books have been written and debates conducted on the manner in which the hungry people can be helped, real action is the answer to the problem of hunger. There needs to be sustainable methods of providing food for the hungry populations. The sustainability of these means is measured in the number of people that can be fed long after relief food stops being supplied to these individuals. The problem has been addresses. It is now up to the respective societies and organizational bodies to ensure that there is a significant reduction in the number of hungry people in the world.

 How slums can save the planet by Stewart Brand 

Slums are an inevitable part of urban growth. They are an indication of the rising population pressure, and the planning of urban cities. Slums are as a result of poor urban planning, and they indicate the ease with which individuals who cannot afford housing in the urban centers create housing estates of their own. There is a concept of workability in refined cities. This means that citizens are encouraged to keep the environment clean and concentrate on community building. There is a new force in the developed cities and it is new urbanism. In squatter cities of the developing countries, there is a lot more to be discovered, and a lot of ideas to be built upon to ensure the development and improvement of the already existing housing conditions. Slums are areas in the city comprised of poorly developed and planned housing units. A majority of the people who occupy the slum areas do not have legal rights to build their housing units.

Residents gradually improve the squatter cities that surround their communities. This is in an effort to improve the appearance of their community as well as improve the livelihoods of the slum dwellers, presence of slums compel the local authorities and the community to take an active role in ensuring that there is an improvement in these living quarters. The authorities and planning governments have to ensure that, as the slums expand in size, there is the maintenance of the optimum population density. Slums do not improve the efficiency of operations in the cities, nor do they have appositive effect on the resources of the people. Increase in the population of slim dwellers in the city increases the rise in the pressure placed upon the resources mean for the legitimate urban population.

The city is a benign form of human settlement. All city dwellers have some contribution to the society. There is an environmental impact caused by all city dwellers. Increase in the population of slums increases this impact, and might have negative effects on the land set aside for city development. Increase in slums leads to infrastructure inefficiencies, and increases the cost of living in the stated areas. Healthcare, schools and public utilities become more congested and there is a reduction in the quality of services they offer. Slums offer the opportunity for different cities to be urbanized. Cities lean towards each other in an effort to borrow some of the policies that have been successful in shaping their growth and development. Slums offer an opportunity for new zoning rules, and environmental laws. The development of slums around a city is a cause for improvement in the conditions of the city. With growth in the size of a slum comes improvement of security services, reduction I pollution, disease and injustice rates. Slums aid in the development of the cities around which they form, hence increasing the livelihood of their people. Life in slums is different than that in the cities. Goods offered and services rendered differ in significant levels; there is no comparison between life in the slums and life in the city.  However, there is a possibility that plans can save the planet. They compel the city dwellers and urban planners to develop policies and rules that will improve their means of livelihood. They improve the living conditions of people in the cities.

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