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In the recent years, computer based-espionage and terrorism have become more and more and more difficult. Computer-based terrorist have become more and more diverse, hazardous and common. As technology has grown and flourished in the world, computer-based espionage and terrorism has influenced the day-to day operations in different organizations. As warfare slowly becomes more involved in the digital world, many people fear that the critical goal may be to shut down a country’s infrastructure.

Computer based espionage and espionage is spying with a computer. For example, breaking in or monitoring computer system legally or illegally and hacking. In the last forty years Computer based espionage and terrorism has greatly increased. First of all, the over accomplishment and unique type of computer-based espionage is that used by the government intelligence agencies and the military. This kind of computer-based espionage was the primary and continues to contain some of the most convert and secretly hidden operations and technology. It is until after these agencies have developed something important. This form of computer-based espionage has agents travelling to other countries and implementing many private covert activities to collect information about other country’s future plans and technologies or for instance, terrorist threat or nuclear program (Levy, Karst and Winkler 2000).  

Computer-based espionage and the collection of data have been important in the time of civil war, mostly for the United States in world war one, world war two, and the Cold War. However, computer–based espionage progress to be an important role that the Central Intelligence Agency plays in the United States. The Central Intelligence Agency is presently the only organization mandated to create, define, enforce and operate computer-based covert espionage missions.

Some computer-based espionage and intelligence collection has been paying attention on countering organized crime and the threats of terrorism. Intelligence organizations in the United States deal with such scorching topics as organized crime, terrorism, drug cartels, and other criminal actions. This pertains all across the brutality and cruelty of the crime. Many countries are at present implementing and enforcing spy camera systems that read and interpret car registration tags and can without human intervention send tickets for speeding, running red lights and other traffic infringements (Bequai 1986).

Another form of computer based espionage is surveillance is at present a large kind of espionage that spies are using. The development of the technology era has permitted surveillance to be a more common and extensively used technique. Cameras can be constructed as tiny as postage stamps and satellites can capture pictures of nearly whatever thing in the world. In 1999 a Denver-based business instigated an internet based company that presented satellite images to the day after day consumer. Space Imaging, initiated its Ikonos satellite and tenders one-meter black-and-white photos. John Pike, a defense analyst stated that Space Imaging is giving any individual with a dozen or a thousand dollars the similar view of the job that the U.S. spy organizations or agencies have had for the last four decades.

Another type of computer-based espionage is industrial (economical) espionage, this kind of espionage can demonstrate to the most underhanded and costly type. It was testified nine years ago (1996) that money-making crime and corruption are dependable for an estimated loss of $260 billion a year for US based companies. Computer-based espionage has promoted the economic espionage which is the stealing of propriety information. Computer-based economic espionage occurs mainly often in rapid paced, inventive industries that rely greatly on research and advancement. Industries such as automotive, hardware, coatings and advanced materials, semiconductors and manufacturing are examples of the industries most seriously affected by computer-based industrial espionage.

The massive rise in competition within these industries has resulted to the big increase of threat for spying and theft of propriety information. This threat and the act are very genuine. For example, panels of Chinese scientists and American were operating on a novel and fast entrance ramp to the superhighway. This world-shattering communications system would have associated consumer televisions with the technology, Internet and the information they had gathered had an anticipated price tag of $250 million, with the technology having the possibility of making millions in earnings each year. One guy broke into the Amherst, New York research company’s office and stole only information relatable to the project, leaving behind valuable computers and equipment behind. This situation is one in thousands that is occurring every year. With the threat well-known, counterespionage methods and techniques are being implemented by technology leaders and big corporations. Techniques counting enclosing chemical plants in big buildings, triple security layering, improve computer security and other private techniques are everyday roles in many big companies (Easttom 2006).

Along with the computer-based Industrial and Economic espionage the computing period or rather we can call it computing age has further added a whole new dissection to the world of espionage. Voice commencement, language understanding, finger print recognition and electronic codes have improved the security that is available. Additionally, computers have made the techniques of espionage much more extensive. Of late, the computer has become the spy’s latest tool of choice in not only collecting and conveying information, but also examining it.

To be victorious spies must be able to gain entrance to private data, steal or duplicate it, run away the area unnoticed and speak the information to their courier so that the analyst can use the information to distribute intelligence to their bureau. The individual needs of different operations and missions has meant the development of a wide range of cameras, listening devices, entrance techniques, encapsulation, code breaking devices, information hiding and concealments. All the equipment and technology that is used by spies since they are much be easy to use, easily masquerading and secure to the user.

Numerous kinds of technology and equipment exist. For example, digital cameras are one of the main extensively used pieces of equipment in computer-based espionage. This device can take on many ways, particularly very small ones. Spies use cameras to capture pictures of people, places, and things that their organization might be attracted in. To be most efficient and effective digital cameras for spies, they must be easy to conceal, small, and easy to use without being detected. There are at present subminiature cameras that exist that are smaller than a postage stamp. This is definitely small enough to make sure a spy is not detected. Subminiature cameras used in convert practices are often encumbered in ties, watches and buttons (Durham and (U.S.) 2009).

One of the most popular subminiature digital cameras is the Minox camera which was discovered by a Latvian engineer, Walter Zapp, in 1937 and constructed in 1938; it was for several years a famous and commonly used camera. This camera was not initially developed for espionage, but its quality photos, small size, and ability to take 50 photos with no reloading film made it perfect for covert practices. At present, digital cameras are the most frequently used source of photography because they offer much of the same flexibility the Minox presented in the (19)30s-90s devoid of film.

Another instrument used in computer-based espionage and terrorism is the Audio surveillance which is very critical in enhancing eavesdropping which is used to hear the whole conversations without really being in the room, tiny microphones are used together with amplifiers, transmitters or recorders so that information can be collected right from the horse’s mouth. Typically, each process could require a particularly made listening device, and once the device is created, it has to be planted in the location where it is going to be used. Listening devices vary in size from the back of a book, to a pen, to a small pin hole and in the range it can record and transmit. The options depend on the necessity of the spy. There are many situations that a spy must consider so that they are not detected when carrying out audio surveillance.

Quality concealment is one of the most commonly reason for computer espionage, but not having their gadget detected is also very critical. Data processing and electronic equipment, like that used in video surveillance emit signals into space and the neighboring conducive objects. A tempest technology is used by the US government to detect and prevent these emissions so that equipment is not noticed. On the reverse side of this, some computer devices must meet certain tempest necessities so that it cannot be eavesdropped upon. With rather low complicated technology and a high enough amount of emissions, most computers can be eavesdropped upon.

The early Egyptians had a well constructed system of acquiring private knowledge and information. In the middle era, computer-based political espionage and terrorism became crucial. During the American Revolution, Benedict Arnold and Nathan Hale achieved celebrity as spies, and there was substantial use of spies on both sides during the U.S. Civil War. By World War one, all the enormous powers except the United States had civilian spy programs and all national military institutions had intelligence units. To protect the country against foreign agents, the U.S. Congress approved the Espionage Statute of 1917. Germany and Japan established elaborate espionage nets in the years preceding World War Two. At the moment U.S. intelligence has developed and deployed unmanned aerial vehicles.

At present China has a domestic communications intelligence program known as Golden Shield that uses new computer-based espionage technologies to monitor domestic communication the internet; it is possibly that technologies developed for Golden Shield are also used for overseas intelligence gatherings. China’s military is replication the U.S. military and developing computer network practices to attack U.S. information resource and, maybe, infrastructure in the event of a disagreement. Russia, France, Israel and others, even North Korea, have similar programs (MacHovec 1992).

The simplicity of computer-based espionage and terrorism puts a profound load on defense. Networks will be susceptible for a long period. Department of defense is particularly among the less susceptible agencies. While no secret U.S. network appears to have been compromised, there is an enormous quantity of precious data on open systems, especially in government research facilities and in the individual sector. We should imagine that those who want it have already downloaded much of this stored information. But as new information is put online, the U.S. should be troubled less about who is attacking them. Assume everyone is attacking in order to cause loss or harm, one should therefore pay more attention to basic security measures: encrypting data, authenticating users, monitoring systems for intrusions and regular patching.

Computer espionage threatened the US department of defense and its national security.

This threat is liable to be hard to differentiate because it may appear to be hacker activity and will deliberately avoid causing loss or harm in order to avoid recognition. Even though there is little information in the public field about the use of computer hacking in foreign intelligence practices, there is no hesitation that this activity is common among most countries intelligence agencies globally. The first acknowledged computer espionage case was in 1986 and was immortalized in the best seller novel, The Cuckoos Egg. In this situation, the Soviet KGB imposed five hackers to hack into US department of defense intelligence systems and provide information to the Soviets. These juvenile hackers all had financial problems and drug and were easily subjugated by the Soviet KGB. This early on espionage investigation discovered the fundamentals of cyber espionage to foreign intelligence services and also the inclination for criminal hackers to be examined and be employed by a foreign intelligence services.

To defend against all loss or harm from various computerized attack, the United States must have the capability to prevent attacks. In most recent cases, the first line of prevention will be a strong defense to rebuff potential attackers’ access to the United States systems. However, because of the universal open nature of our systems, it will be unfeasible to stop all intrusions. As long as there is any risk for computer attack, we remain susceptible. The second part of a strong deterrent policy will be the threat of retaliation or punishment. This ability to hit back will be helpful in establishing law and order in cyber space and will give us the ability to hold, sub-state groups, individuals and states responsible for cyber attacks. Without this ability to hit back, potential cyber attackers will continue to threaten US interests with impunity.

Cyber terrorism which is a classification of computer-based terrorism refers to the convergence of cyber space and terrorism.Mark Pollitt, special agent for the FBI, offers a working definition: Cyber terrorism is the premeditated, politically motivated attack against information, computer programs, computer systems, and data which result in violence against noncombatant targets by sub national groups.

Early signs suggest that terrorist grouping may use the Internet more to influence public opinion and organize their activities than to open highly harsh and disruptive attacks. An example can be initiated in the struggle between Zapatista National Liberation Army and the government of Mexico. The Zapatistas and their cohorts have used the Internet to increase word about their condition and to harmonize activities. One group of New York supporters, the Electronic Disturbance Theater organized an attack against Mexican President Zedillo‘s Web site. On April 10, 1998, members in the attack pointed their web browsers to a site with FloodNet software, which bombarded the site with traffic.

Even though this may be more of an example of hacking on the part of the Electronic Disturbance Theater, it shows how a terrorist agency can use the Internet to transmit their message and misinform or misdirect the general populace in multiple nations concurrently.

In February 2003, the US administration published a report titled, the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace that makes clear that the U.S. government upholds the right to respond in a suitable manner if the United States comes under computer attack. This response could involve the use of U.S. cyber weapons, or malicious code intended to attack and disrupts the targeted computer systems of an adversary. The US established a congress which held talk about the issues that could counter any occurrence of the attack.  The US used its department of defense cyber weapons to hit back against terror groups. The congress also discussed about privacy. It stipulated that any information should be kept private to everyone except for the people to prevent an attack by the intruders. The attack may occur in various places such as communication channels and the devices.

Additionally the congress introduced a terrorism awareness program which was intended to sort through various numbers of citizens’ personal information such as credit card and smart card. Other than these, the US department of defense has presently reviewed the ability of other data mining products using the technology that may reduce the domestic privacy concerns raised by terrorism information awareness program.  The congress also emphasized on education and how the states should coordinate to protect about cyber crime. The Cyber Security Research and Development Act has emphasized on training program that will make sure people have adequate knowledge on cyber attacks.

Another issue involves the level to which industry managers and public officials should be held responsible for their performance in ensuring cyber security. Some observers allegedly have indicated that the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace presently may not present a comprehensive relation between security objectives and the incentives requisite to help attain those goals.

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