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Confucianism is defined as a philosophical and religious system which has been established from the writings assigned to Confucius, a Chinese philosopher (Bell & Ham, 2003). According to Bell & Ham (2003), Confucianism usually focuses on the relationship between individuals and the society, individuals and their families, and between individuals themselves. Confucian ideals have continued to inspire political actors, and thinkers in the contemporary world (Bell & Ham, 2003). Internationally renowned lawyers, philosophers, social scientists, and historians argue for desirable and feasible Confucian institutions and policies as they try to draw out the economic, legal, and political deductions of Confucianism for the contemporary world (Bell & Ham, 2003). Confucius was born in China in 551BC and as he grew up, he spent most of his life moving from one state to another, desiring to achieve his values of social and political reform. He was concerned to return an era when leaders of the Chinese government were righteous, morals were observed rightfully, and virtues were upheld (Bell & Ham, 2003).
Confucianism put more emphasis on the ways in which individuals could live together in a pleasant manner and develop a society that is more organized (Bell & Ham, 2003). According to Confucian, the higher good in the society does not depend on the favors of birth but depends on the practice of positive, kind and sensible behavior, and of service to other people (Bell & Ham, 2003). Confucian’s philosophy recognized and treasured the wisdom of the previous years and stressed on a person’s society, life, and values. He promulgated that one must live by the virtues of righteousness, love, wisdom, and propriety. Individuals were supposed to express equal love to one another (Bell & Ham, 2003).
It is evident that the desires of Confucius for an ideal society are the same desires that people in the modern world need to be achieved (Bell & Ham, 2003). People should practice positive, kind and sensible behavior in order to create a more organized and favorable society. The moral principles that were provided by Confucius are the same principles that are observed in the modern society (Bell & Ham, 2003). These moral principles include cultivation of wisdom, being trustworthy, respecting rituals, and striving to do the right thing. Practices such as abortion, and homosexuality are considered as evil practices in the modern world and therefore, are discouraged. The modern just like the modern world, Confucianism was against abortion except in the situation when the mother’s health was in danger (Bell & Ham, 2003).