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Question 1

Brazil is a South American country sharing borders with all South American countries, except Ecuador and Chile. It is the largest country in the Latin America and the fifth largest in the world after Russia, the USA, Canada and China, covering an area of 8,514,876.599 km2. Brazil is considered an economic giant of the Latin America. This paper identifies Brazil’s current status in terms of economy, social and political stability. Statistical data and characteristic of changes would be a consideration to determine the challenges that would emerge and should be done away with and/or managed for the growth of Brazil. Considering that Brazil boasts economic prowess in the Latin America, a number of challenges and difficulties face the country currently. The future of Brazil is and will be faced by a number of economical, social, and political challenges.

Social Challenges

Brazil, being one of the richest countries of the world, makes up a record in the rankings of inequality in wealth distribution. The rich and the poor are not separated by the status only, the digits of their income ranges and distribution of the country's income sets the boundaries. As a matter of reduction of poverty, some schemes and projects aimed at addressing the issue of poverty have been put in place. The efforts by President Luiz Inaicio Lula da Silva in the year 2003 did not bear as much fruit as it was anticipated. The projects were erected to address the issues of the most impoverished population of Brazil. To facilitate this, the President decided that the poor were to be given money directly to address their social factors.

The cons of the project of the Brazil President originated from the factor of giving monetary support to people rather than developing a bailout plan for them. The da Silva government led to a 19.8% decrease in the poverty rate within the period 2002 to 2006. The reason why this rate did not hold up for a long period was an unequal economic development across Brazil. The most affected areas are the up country parts, which are faced by below-par standards. According to Gini Coefficient index of an inequality assessment study, the rate of poverty of Brazil is attributed to economic inequality. This study shows that a third of Brazil’s population comprises of the poor (Brainard 2009, p. 214).

Crime rate

The crime rate in Brazil is a significant challenge that faces the current and threatens the future social stability. Almost 24 cases of homicide are reported with every 100, 000 residents. Among other sorts of crime, muggings, robberies, kidnappings, and gang violence are reported to be in the increase. The arm of the law is also involved in this sector of crime, where police brutality and corruption are the main issues. For the future of Brazil, with the daily increase of crimes’ corruption, brutality of police will not end soon. The consequence of this is that social aspects of Brazil will not be nearing stability any time soon.

Education

Education in Brazil is constitutionally overlooked by municipalities or the states. Going by this setting, the states under the evidence of economic disparities have varied financial strengths. Students from poor states get poor education, while those from rich states get quality education. Concerning the development of the country in other sectors like the economy, the poorly educated population scarcely contributes to the country’s GDP. Other factors affecting the education in Brazil include non-attendance and malnutrition. Students are absent from class mainly due to the challenges facing the poor as most of the students from the poor families had to work. Although forbidden by law, child labor in Brazil is a common practice. There is no guarantee that the situation will be changed in thee nearest future, since no functional or reliable efforts have been put in place. Education is the backbone of economy in social sense; therefore, it is predicted that the future of Brazil will have to deal with the issue of staggering imbalance of economic strengths (Edwards 2008, p. 70).

Economical Challenges

The economy of Brazil is rather stable. The factors that lead to this are associated with the availability of favorable climatic conditions that have pushed the leading player of the economy, Agriculture, to maximum yields. The availability of ready local and international markets has been another factor that has pushed the economy so high. With the involvement in the offshore oil drilling, the economy has been stabilized further.

The challenges that are unavoidable are centered on the factors that resources diminish and there is an obvious threat posed by global warming. The oil reserves that Brazil drills will get exhausted; people opting for alternative energy may also take away the economic benefits acquired from oil. There could be a number of alternatives that Brazil can put in place to address the issue if the wells’ or oil demand goes down. But going by the numbers and facts on how beneficial oil is, the future in economical terms would face a serious blow. Agriculture depends entirely on climate. Yet, global warming affects all climatic zones. This fact is a negative challenge that poses a potential threat to Brazil’s agricultural sector. Having agriculture as the main economic contributor, Brazil’s future will be hanging on the balance unless a number of alternatives are devised before then.

Political Challenges

Currently, Brazil enjoys a favorable political climate. This is due to the stable governance that is in place. However, emerging issues threaten the future of Brazil. Some of the emerging issues that may present themselves have the potential to take the country in political wrangles and in a broad score to international or regional war. Brazil is in dispute with Uruguay for some border sections, namely Arroio Invernada and a Brazilian island at the confluence of Quarai River and the Uruguay River. The dispute has not been resolved diplomatically for some time. The issue can be settled or lead to war. In that sense, the political future is faced by a challenge of possible war going by the history of war causing elements.

In the year 1986, the section between 28° W and 53° E was declared to belong to Brazil; this section overlaps Argentina and British claims. The politics to be involved in the settlement of the claims may possess a potential of war development. With outstanding political issues and changing government regimes, Brazil cannot claim to be safe; the political challenges are like a time bomb, whose explosion is undetermined (Kesselman 2009, p. 418).

Conclusion

Poor education, high crime rate, brutality, and corruption by law enforcement units are the main challenges facing Brazil. The poor education of some proportion of the population and the possibility of the decrease in economy due the resources exhaustion and global warming broaden the future economic challenges’ margin. The current political issues can lead to war or a political unrest; international relations may have negative implication and the country may be cut of trade agreements and diplomatic travel bans.

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