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1. Democratic-based political systems have in the recent past been settling on forming majority coalition either before or after the elections. Such systems are more organized and cohesive as opposed to single party systems that have since then proved to be distinguishable and fragmented. Majority coalitions are believed to form blocs that are more decisive when it comes to elections.  The involved parties are decisive in shaping the election outcomes through indicating their coalition’s preferences prior to the elections.  Though parties rarely come up with coalition policies that are substantive prior elections, they make their indications clear about their preferred coalition’s partners. This is an indication that the mergers can come before or after the elections. In most cases coalitions are formed after the elections when a run off is required. Alignments before elections are mostly aimed at having post election boost in the bargaining power instead of aiding accountability.  A good example of such a scenario is the case in Wales and Scotland where some parties made clear of the alliances they prefer before elections and they responded subsequently in the devolution elections (Hetherington and Larson, 2010). 

Citizens who are the voters find it hard to indentify policy action responsibility if government systems are made up of more than one party sharing power. However, such majority coalitions help voters as they become in the long run accustomed to the government ministries that are normally controlled by a single party. In the short run, the individual partners in the coalition tend to associate themselves with specific policy out put. In some situations, governments manage to maintain their decisiveness under coalition conditions. However, this requires the involved parties to get steeped in the existing majoritarian conditions so as to adapt. Majority coalitions are preferred before elections as the involve parties will have the chance to weigh the many trade offs before making the decision on which course to settle for. Such alignments also help in the accountability and also tend to minimize the post elections environment that is always bargaining and complex.  Such political system also limits the involved parties’ flexibility when faced with a negotiation arena.

2. The Tea Party in the United States enjoys the support of many Republicans as it appeared to be in support of the Republicans at first.  The main message preached by this third party is the need of fewer taxes, less government and full support of the Constitution. The support they offered the Republicans took another twist when they out of no where decided to field their own candidate. There intentions were made clear when Christine O’Donnell, a Tea Party candidate    defeated Mike Castle, a Republican candidate in Delaware. This showed how the Tea Party had transformed from a demonstration group to being a third party.  This scenario takes the Americans back to history dated 1992 Presidential Elections. The current situation involves Mrs. Palin who is in support of the Tea Party but a Republican. Chances are that if she fails to earn the Republican candidature then she will represent the Tea Party in the 2012 elections.  However, things are not as easy as they look as she will not just have an easy walk to the top seat. Before 2012, the Tea party is faced with numerous challenges as it has to build massive support, earn the necessary momentum to push its candidate to the spot light and tackle its main huddles such as financial resources to enable it finance the campaign (Hetherington and Larson, 2010).. The party is also faced with the challenge of organizing the party as it has to field other candidates a part from the presidential the flag bearer. Electoral laws were also a challenge as the side was not a fully established party and more so the hard choice of which side to align with in case of a coalition formulation.

In case the Tea Party establishes itself to being the third party in the presidential race in 2012, they will play a big role in deciding how the elections will go. With the large support from the Republicans, they will dictate the results of the states initially ruled by the Republicans either supporting them to victory or split the seats allowing the Democrats to carry the day.  Thus the future of the United States will be greatly shaped by the presence of the Tea Party more than ever before.

B.  Financing Party Candidates

Name of committee

Amount spent on campaign expenses

Amount spent on media

Amount spent on media (different types of recipients)

Amount spent on transfers

Citizen United

$3,066,959

$664,000

$248,638

$525,412

Intl Brotherhood of Electrical Workers

 

$8,953,424

$299,078

$12,146

$3,328,650

National Education Assn

 

$5,371,653

$110,430

$529,714

$904,155

Democracy for America

 

$4,300,324

 

$234,000

$69,992

$89,148

Laborers Union

 

$3,107,686

$232,534

$403,435

$2,052,000

Ironworkers Union

 

$2,587,095

$56,346

$1,739,400

$6,490

League of Conservation Voters

 

$1,466,471

$12,334

$846,725

$177,815

Carpenters Union/Philadelphia & Vicinity

 

$183

$34

$ 0

$0

American Bakers Assn

 

$183,483

$ 12,628

$155,748

$180,950

Property Casualty Insurers Assn/America

 

$772,607

$23,735

$414,700

 

$388,210

 

2. Democratic/liberal leaning committees, $282,787,525

   Republican/conservative leaning committees, $141,218,054

  Third Party leaning committees $175,587

  Non-Party leaning committees $371,822,024

The groups were non partisan as the non-party leaning committees recorded the highest amount of expenses of   $371,822,024 which was the highest figure compared to the other groups. However, the Democrats received more support from the groups recording $282,787,525 compared to the Republicans support that amounted to a lesser figure of $141,218,054. The Third Party received the least favor of approximately$175,587 mainly because of its popularity.

3. Obama’s campaign was tremendous aided by the support and success he received from fund raising. His campaign depended mostly on both small and big donors mostly from the internet. This is where he beat McCain as he didn’t receive much of the donors especially from the internet.   Obama took a brave step of declining public financing as he regarded that as being part of the taxpayers’ money making its funding from the Federal Funds to remain at $ 0%. This was the opposite of McCain depended on the taxpayer’s money getting approximately $84,103,800 23% from the Federal funds. McCain choice of being financing his campaign using public funds was disadvantageous as he was limited not to exceed $84 million. This gave Obama an advantage, helping him raise more than $ 66 million on the month of September. Obama campaign can be regarded as self sponsored as his individual contribution of $656,357,572 surpassed the other contribution by more than 88% compared to McCain whose individual contribution was at $199,275,171 forming only 54% of the his total contributions. Both the candidates recorded zero contribution when it came to self-financing. They also had approximately similar percentage from other contribution with Obama’s figure being at  $88,626,223 and McCain’s at $83,306,833 (Berry and Wilcox 2009).

 

C.  The Politics of Gerrymandering

1. The Republicans command a 55% of the total seats while the Democrats command the Remaining 45% seats.

2.  Although the Republicans enjoyed the greater percentage of the combined seats in the four legislative districts by 55% compared to 45% for the republics, the situation is different in each respective district as the democrats dominated in two while the   remaining two were taken by the republics. However, the leads attained by the democrats in the two districts were slim of less than 4% while the victories achieved by the Republicans in the other two districts had greater margins of 20% and 28% respectively (Levine, B. (2009).

3. The Republicans are seen to hold to be more secure with there seats compared to the    `Democrats as in the districts where the party dominates, its victories are of larger margins compared to the victories witnessed by the Democrats.  In the two districts the where the Republicans dominated, that is district A and B, its margins were  seats and 5 respectively while the Democrats wins in districts C and D were slim of only one seat in each district.

4. The incumbent margin is more secure in districts A and B as compared to C and D. This is because the Republicans have a confident control in districts A and B with incumbent margins of 7 and 5 respectively.

5.

District

Former Margin of Victory

New Margin of Victory

A

7

4

B

5

3

C

1

3

D

1

3

 

6. b. The maximum number of seats that can be awarded to the Republicans is 14. 

   c. The Republicans voters vote a block in each district even if the party did not emerge victory in all the districts. This is seen as the republicans wins are accompanied by large incumbent margins. This indicates that even the party looses in some districts, still it will enjoy the majority number of seats in long run and remain confident of victory in the coming elections.

7. b. The maximum number of seats that the redirection can give the democrats 15

c. The Democratic voters’ ratio with its seats is low as they are shy to vote. This is evident as the margins witnessed in its victories are low thus the total number of seats of democrats remain low. The total percentage of the total seats of democrats is 45% yet it had equal number of wins compared to the republicans who had at total of 55%.

8. By trying to reduce the margins in the districts where the Republicans, this will give the party an incumbency advantage as it draws to dominate all the districts. This will bring a linkage between the districts sizes and the total number of Republicans seats. Such stability will earn the Republicans better changes of emerging victors in the following elections or incase of a reelection. This is easily achieved by taking the incumbent’s margins of the Republicans less the Democratic percentage of the two participating parties’ seats from the incumbent’s percentage of both Republicans and Democrats (Berry and Wilcox 2009).

D.  Issue Advocacy

Global warming is an issue of concern to most people as its effects are adverse and deadly.  Ranging from students from elementary schools, to researchers who are advanced, business leaders, politicians and spiritual leaders are all concerned about what can be done about this issue. To achieve this, a balance should exist between the causative agents and the measures and researches aimed at controlling it. Both the above mentioned sides have a stake in trying to deal with global warming. Some of the key groups that are out advocating for global warming control include the U.S Government Agencies, International Government Agencies and Programs, Academic and Independent Research Centres and Programs, Skeptics Organizations and Publications and Resources for Children & Families. However, the efforts of the above named groups will be useless if nothing is done to try and check global warming leading factors. This points a finger to areas such as pollution from power plants and vehicles, energy industries and automobiles, emotions from industries and electrical appliances emissions. The advocating groups’ efforts like U.S Government Agencies are involved in programs which concentrate on climatic changes. Government agencies such as the United Nations are involved in education, solution advancement targeting emissions from greenhouses and research. Research centers, programs combine public policy and interdisciplinary scientists to explore the issue and come up with possible solutions. The general public and children need to be educated on the role they play in causing and controlling global warming (Houghton, J. (2009).

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