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Taking part is an essential component of the representative democracy. The citizen influence on the government through lobbying, elections, protest and through other forms of participation in politics and via empirical research confirming that the differentials in the participation adds up to directly into the differential policy results. The political participation in a sign of the government legitimacy and sense of the collective accountability and civic responsibility that is associated to the consolidation and stabilization of democracies. The degrees of participation for the subgroup diverse the attention, though gender differences are in particular worthy of significant attention. Historically, female have deliberately been excluded from the political participation and power in the democracies, as well as differentials in the participation that persist even the removal of the formal barriers to the voting or holding the office. However, in the developed world, gender differentials have reversed with the women voting at the higher rates than their male counterpart. However, we that every determinants and the extent of the female and participation (Connell, 2009).
During the Spanish conquest in early days, there were only a few women who were allowed to accompany male warriors. Majority Spaniards believed that the company of women was likely to cause distraction and may lower the violence and the intensity needed for the domination of all the American natives; however, the worriers had the liberty to get brides from the natives to fulfil the void. After the conquistadors had dominated the territory, the warriors would turn their effort to the task of establishing the empire. Women among the natives provided the stability that is needed to counteract the restless spirit of their men, and still the adventurous. As a result of the Spanish conquest, the roads and the cities of Latin America were developed in a colonial era that had gender balance. The Spanish in their new colony expected the stability that was provided by women to be an integral part of the sexiest stereotype, which may prevail in the Latin America. For a century of Solitude, the female were responsible for remaining home while keeping all things under control.
Through this mean, the demands of the Spanish community led to the development to the code of the phenomenon that shows the imitation naivety of women. Men portrayed women as morally and spiritually superior to men, but intellectually and physically inferior. This implied women inferiority in the socio-political area as well as in the family relationships. As a result of this set of the standards ideally among women caused life styles of marital faithfulness, purity, patient suffering, submission to men, and patient suffering. Ideally, a Latino lady would sacrifice everything for the sake of her family and even tolerate their husband even those who are abusive. The Latin American males followed the stereotypical patterns by showing their masculinity by aggression, violence, dominance, and pride over their female partners, including the sexual exploitation (Dotterer, 1992).
Societies vary in regard to the extent of the quality or lack of it, in the social status of their female and male members, but where there is inequality, the status females are held with lesser esteem that the status male. Considering that gender is intertwined with the society and their statuses of the differential evaluation, male and female members of the society of the advantaged groups have more power, high prestige, and materially rich than of there is counterpart who are less favoured. Nevertheless, within their social grouping, men are generally empowered economically and other socio-economic areas such as in education and the job opportunities that are available to be enjoyed by men
Over the past several decades, migration flows have taken a drastic change significantly in direction, size and overall influence in the nations of their origin and the host nations as well. The economics Commission of the Latin America identified several major migration forms in the Latin America. The historical immigration into the Latin America from the international communities took place between the middle of the 19thand early 20th centuries. The intra-regional migration, favoured by the economic and social developments and the structure during the time between 1970-1990 that shows the highest rates of migration within the Latin America (Meyer, 2009).
The gender development begins with the assignment to the sex category based on the genitalia observation during birth. Immediately after birth the babies will be treated differently based on their gender. A sex category will become a gender identity through dressing, naming, and assignment of other gender markers. As soon as they start to talk they will start to identify themselves with the gender allocated to them by the society where they were brought up from. Gender may not come to the significant effect until at the puberty, however, at this stage; the feelings that are associated with the gender will have been developed.
The gendering is specifically done during the birth for various reasons that are intertwined in the traditions and cultures of different communities. Human tends to depend significantly on the predictable decisions of the duties, responsibilities, values, and legitimate leadership. One of the ways of getting the people allocated to different responsibilities in their societies is based on the talents and motivations.
The western societies tend to value the process of gendering by claiming that the process is physiological. It should be known that sex and gender is not the same thing, and gender as a social development should be treated as an automatic connection to the gentalia. The hormones and the biological development are key in the development of human social institutions.
For women and men who are doing the same tasks, they tend to be segregated to the maintenance of the gender demarcation and often the roles are given different job tags as well. As the process of the gender creates social differences defining man and woman, the social development and interaction in the live tends to be created. The gendering pattern of association and interaction lead to development of gender-related sexuality and parenting. The gender norms and the expectations are implemented through the informal sanctioning of the gender-inappropriate behaviour by the peers and through the punishment by the people who are in the authority (Dotterer, 1992).
The tread that has been developed in the history of Latin America has outlined female as achievers of great political position. The inclusion of women does not automatically lead to the substantive activities of their representation (Nelson & Caudhuri%u0304, 1994). Hispanics for example have been considered as being the biggest minority group. They have since continued to grow in high numbers. In 2000, they were more than half the population growth of the US. As such, they cannot be ignored politically. They command some influence and thus have continually been engaged politically. As was seen in the recent United States elections, they delivered significant numbers. Since the year 2004, Latino voter numbers has doubled. About 18 million are considered eligible voters in the US.
This influence that has been growing over the years has been challenging the political environment. Pictures of American culture depict the culture of Latinos in a stereotyped and idealized past. They show something rigid, sterile, standardized and associated with specific images. Such stereotypes touching on culture do not realize the extent to which existing political communities that operate are constructed or how they were imagined. There has been advances in the theories which realize that each culture is hybrid and usually heterogeneous.
America may soon have a very different identity. For example, there are Latino voices being introduced in the new impetus. Debate is ongoing on the current undocumented immigration leading to tension on how to interpret the changing identity. Immigrants have often been labelled as terrorists or criminals and an attempt to discriminate them is usually met with rage though it happens all the time. Peaceful protestors got the attention of political establishments. Native Americans consider the Latin Americans as weeds which need to be plucked. This is because race has played a major role in defining who will be a US citizen and who will not.
The changing policies in the current political world have greatly involved women in the development and governorship of the world. Women are getting their influence through enactment of bills that are favouring them and their role in the development of the society. The concern is on whether the ladies are sufficiently empowered and influential to drive the change of the policies (Scott, 1988). Even where women are acting on the policies that are to their own good, the female politicians will find it difficult to get the budgets, bills, and even the executive decisions executed without interjection by their male counterparts. Women in position of influence face various obstacles in achieving policies success. In Latin America women leaders tend to encounter principled opposition to the bills and proposals; or they are not included in the committee that are busy and influential in the running of the government affairs. Women will also lack the political clout that would ensure that their bills are discussed and passed to law (Meyer, 2009).
In such gender divided society, men will tend to be held with greater esteem than women would since men are thought to do it better, even where the tasks are almost similar to the one done by their counterpart ladies. For instance, indifferent regions of the Latin America, the work of harvesting are synonymous to men. All the duties that are carried out by women are usually seen as easy (Sreberny & Zoonen, 2000). But the same task when it is done by men, it will be considered difficult. During Stone Age, the work of hunting and gathering of small animals, fruits, and grubs was associated to the women and was not even celebrated; to the contrary men’s hunting trip was celebrated both during going and on their way back. Communities varies in the extent of the imbalances in the social status of their men and the women members, however, where there is the inequality, the status women are usually held in lesser esteem compared to the men. Though gender plays a role in this inequality, it should be known that there are other factors that are involved- religions, race, occupation, country of origin, social class, and many others- society member of the favoured group tend to have influence over the less favoured section (Walby, 1997).
The economic development, education levels, and job opportunities are also inclined to the groups that are more favourable over the other that are less influential in the society. The gender inequality in the Latin American politics has a social functioning as well as a social historical background. The social orientation as it is known in the Western societies is organized on the basis of racial ethnic and gender inequalities. Thus there is an effort for a continuous focus on the purpose of the gender as an institution in the modern society to develop women as a sub-group that should be the subordinates of men as a group. This is evident in the present governments, not only in the Latin American, but in the rest of the Word (Dotterer, 1992).
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