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Abraham Maslow (1908 – 1970) created Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory; the theory expounds the levels of human needs in pyramid and in terms of importance (Maslow, 1943). The needs are organized in order of significance to life in a manner that after the need is satisfied, it is not a motivator for a human anymore and he/she is motivated with the need which is one rank higher. In the most basic level of significance is water, food and shelter satisfaction of which is imperative for human survival and psychological well-being. The needs at the high level of the pyramid, such as self-actualization, are not powerful individuals` stimulators. Their influence is a life experience and education levels (Maslow, 1943).
Maslow structures the levels of needs in a hierarchy; the physiological/basic needs feature needs for basic necessities such as food, water and shelter. Upon satisfaction of these basic needs, an individual pursues safety needs in the next level. These pertain to conditions that ensure survival happens within a safe environment and lack or insufficiency in their satisfaction predisposes an individual to psychological or emotional disturbance.
Fulfilling satisfaction of the safety levels leads to pursuance of social needs. A crave for affection, close relationship and a sense of belonging forms the next level. This level involves giving and receiving love and focuses on a need to belong and feel the appreciation of others. In this Maslow highlights the esteem need; it involves the feeling that others respect and appreciate us; it is a feeling of self governing, capability and value. At the highest level of the pyramid are self-actualization needs. These arise after satisfying all other needs, and they involve the vision of making the best out of the available resources, and maximize satisfaction. It is a level in which individuals strive to maximize their personal potentials such as talents.
Humanists do not believe that power-driven forces of either stimuli and insensible instinctive impulses or reinforcement push human beings. They believe that human beings decide consciously to struggle for upper position of abilities.
Application of Maslow’s theory abound, for instance, the needs for security may mean the achievement of a secure home environment or locality and assurance of a job or employment. Thus, the theory has invaluable lessons for the management; their ingenious application may allow workers to achieve self-actualization levels and encourage better social needs (Steers, 1987). Stimulating and expressive work assignments are good ways of encouraging inventions, creativity and advancements in line with long-term goals. The significance of this approach indicates that workers will achieve meaning, purpose and personal growth; this gives work the real picture of life different from the work assignment approach devoid of workers` needs sensitivity. The environment within which workers operate can also be a good place of identifying what is not met and offer the worker to improve. In the end, both the company and the workers benefit.
Though a potential criminal might be defined from an accounting profile, other features might be recognized. Lisa Eversole’s paper identifies rule breaking, self-centeredness, pressure leading to risk taking, financial endeavors and pressure to achieve the goal, as some of the features. Appraisal of criminally accused health care fraud cases produces important highlights to other conditions (Harlow, 1953). The unethical endeavors that individuals pursue constitute greedy pursuits. For instance, benefit of fraud can be direct, through receiving asset or money, or indirect through promises of promotions or rewards, power of influence and bonuses. These observations indicate a unique level absent in Maslow’s hierarchy, the level of greed. So the hierarchy of greed can be created. In it, such types of greed as corporate, scheme, undisciplined, opportunistic, and organized would feature and inform thinking of human needs.
Corporate greed marks differences between staff levels within undisciplined and unscrupulously greedy leadership of an organization (Alderfer, 1969). Inspection of the role corporate greed plays through profitable vs. profit objects, indicates how it is widespread. Attempts of planning stealing schemes meant to defraud organizations demonstrate the scheme themes. This is mostly through access of secrete information which should not be within the workers` possession. Looking into secrete information such as medical records of popular individuals or celebrities for purposes of curiosity enunciate an indiscipline need within the greed hierarchy.
The healthcare fraud indicates a fertile ground for organized schemes. These are well-planned offenses, which allow a repeat of the same through copying the elaborate plan. The social and legal value of Maslow’s hierarchy allows the understanding of the motives informing the unlawful fraudulent behavior of workers. It is also important in highlighting the importance of looking at the root causes of unlawful tendencies.
Corporate greed is third in the hierarchy of greed. In the opportunistic and undisciplined greed, the individual has a tendency of being a staff member and not the executive or head of department (Wahba, 1987). In corporate greed, we start the climb that may take us to the C-suite. This brings so many questions.
Many non-profit organizations find themselves with large corporate reliability agreements, large settlements, and in some cases imprisonment for conning. In appearance, in many profit care sectors there might be more corporate greed, that are given bonuses, higher salaries, and stock preference that act as the stimulating factors. Those who have succeeded in the non-profit sectors frequently use their achievement as a catalyst to the more profitable sectors. In addition, the rising levels of executive recompense in the non-profit sector have risen to such a position that congressional examination and investigation happen more often, more so as the voluntary non-profit organizations fight to fulfill the community’s needs and to deliver services in times of increased reimbursement and regulatory periods.
It is imperative to consider three other factors; these include misguided altruism, loophole exploitation and ego. Misguided altruism refers to the small limits of global hospital accounts. Studies indicate complete absence of limits in New York State. The result of this is recent seven cases of NYS hospitals 50 million dollars suits. The claims involves kickbacks, charging the unworthy services, and treatment without a license, among others. The case of misguided altruism went wrong and articles report that no criminal actions were unproven in the complaint, but the attorney general became tough for those named in the complaint (Berkowitz, 1969).
In conclusion, the hierarchy of need that Abraham Maslow came up with has influenced employees in organizations by making them realize their needs and accept themselves, thus improving their performance. Conversely, it has facilitated the prosecutors follow the law in the expected manner when judging the offenders. It has also enabled individuals to satisfy their needs one at a time.