Cubism is a 21st century art movement which was invented in Paris around 1907. The major aim of cubism was to disapprove the European notion of ideal beauty especially the conventional form of representation which was an influence from renaissance. In other words, cubism aimed at developing a new perspective on the world which was a reflection of the modern era.
It was mainly developed by two artists; Pablo Picasso (a Spanish artist) and Georges Braques (a French artist). The two worked tirelessly to see cubism movement into maturity. The termed cubism was coined by a critic of French art Louis Vauxcelles, when he saw that the paintings looked like cubes. Pablo was greatly influenced by Cezanne’s reconstruction of nature in parts. The comparison between two pieces of painting, Braque’s house at L’estaque and Cezanne’s Gardanne saw the emergence of cubism.
The two types of cubism are analytical cubism and synthetic cubism. Analytical phase encompasses the period between 1910 and 1911 and it was characterized by observation of objects/subjects from diverse angles. Analytical cubism is associated with Georges Braque, who used very simple, dark, and monochromatic colors. Synthetic cubism began in 1912 when Picasso sought to modify analytical cubism by adding patterned, textured as well as colored surfaces. In analytical cubism, objects would be broken down and analyzed in parts. Synthetic cubism on the other hand entailed combining the different parts to make a whole.
Dada and subsequently surrealism are two art movements that draw much from the visual language of cubism. Dada movement was founded by a French satirist, Voltaire and its main purpose was to criticize the abreactions in the modern world. Surrealism, drawing from Dada movement, was aimed at providing a positive expression for the abstractions in the modern world. Surrealism is associated by various artists including André Breton.