Cognition is a set of mental processes, which include getting attention, memorizing, acquisition and understanding of language, solving problems and making decisions. A number of disciplines like philosophy, psychology, linguistics, and computer study cognition. Nonetheless, the usage and meaning of the term cognition varies from one field to another. In psychology, as well as in cognitive science, cognition refers to how an individual processes information right from seeing, hearing, and understanding through to decision-making. In sociology, there is yet another field that defines cognition in terms of attitudes, attributes and dynamics within a group of people. In cognitive engineering, cognition is seen to be analogous to the processing unit in a computer that accepts input data and processes them to produce meaningful information.

Cognition then entails how an individual receives a message (Peklaj & Vodopivec, 2009). Message can be received through hearing or by seeing. The received information is then processed through the brain until a meaningful interpretation is made. It is for these reasons that cognitive processes are important to scientists, psychologists and scientists all over the world. Cognition involves processing information, applying relevant knowledge and making preferences. These processes can be artificial or natural, conscious and unconscious. The mind is the greatest asset an individual has, and this aspect forms the major focus in this discussion. The mind, intelligence and mental processes (also called thoughts) will be the main objects under review in this paper.

Cognitive Processes


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To understand perception, one should recall their first day in school, how they learned the basic things about the school life. How did one learn from sound and seeing? When one attends their first day in school, they learn more from sound and sight. This is a basic cognitive process that most psychologists use to clarify the processes or initial steps of learning. Perception involves engaging the mind and studying from the environment. During the first day at school, children do a lot of looking around the environment, studying objects and memorizing them so that the environment becomes part of their lives. People analyze their environment so that they can interpret them. Perception involves the following:

SE. Extraverted Sensing

This involves immediate-contexts; an individual is expected to take actions in the external environment; an individual is more aware of the environment where he lives. He notices any changes and takes actions. He scans the environment for any visible data, noticing what is available and working on what needs to be improved; thus, making the environment a better place than the found it (Cole, Yarkoni, Repovs%u030C, Anticevic & Braver, 2012).

Introverted Sensing

Here, learners review their experiences. How does their past affect their present? This stage involves the accumulation of data and connecting the past with the present. One could choose to remember the types of attire they wore and how they felt about them.

IE. Extraverted Sensing

An individual seeks to find out the correlation between actions and events. An individual seeks to find interconnections that exist between events and actions. One explores all the options available. Instead of rushing to blame themselves on situations that were beyond their control, they sink back into their imaginations and come up with possible explanations (or solutions) to possible courses of events in life.


II. Introverted Intuiting

An individual seeks to find out the correlation between actions and events. It helps foreseeing effects of various actions on the internal and external environment of an individual. Conceptualization helps in seeing and doing things differently. People tend to envision themselves as either successful or failures.

TI . Introverted Thinking

This involves evaluating and analyzing of the present data and arranging them according to frame work models or particular inclination of an individual. People are rather concerned about what works for them. They avoid any inconsistencies. They define their preferences.

FE. Extraverted Feeling

This involves observing other people as normal human beings with feelings, desires and tastes. One avoids hurting their feelings or bruising their egos. They maintain a calm and peaceful co-existence among members of a society or an organization. One adjusts and accommodates to views of others. There is mutual respect for every member of the family and the broader society. This advocates for the working together of people, being they depend on each other.

FI. Introverted Feeling

This involves self-evaluation and consideration of a person's worth, reviewing and re-evaluation of one's strengths and weaknesses. People have dreams and clarify what they wish to achieve, and they work towards achieving the set goals. In case they are wrong or feel, there is an aspect of their lives they should improve upon, they take the first initiatives to consider an outfit or improve upon their lives.


Learning involves a lot of concentration. There is need for students at all categories of learning to pay attention to what is being taught at school or class. This explains why the teacher always shouts at students or keeps reminding them about the need to keep quiet in class. Learning as process requires the mind to be free of any other engagement rather than the learning now. It involves a student staying flexible, being focused and ready to synchronize their minds and grasping the new concepts being propagated in class. Listening is part of attention. Students ought to keep quiet in class, and pay attention to their teachers. So the next time a professor or an instructor shouts: “pay attention”, they are just trying to engage the mind of students and listeners. The purpose of attention is to engage the learner sp that they understand what is being taught in class. Everyday life requires that people pay attention and become more aware of their surroundings.


This is an important cognitive process. This involves synthesizing new information and expertise, connecting information and experiences of daily life. Interactions with others are an important learning process. One learns better when in a group than alone. Learning starts from seeing, then later evolving into other senses like hearing, feeling and conceptualizing. A baby, who is just born, uses more of their sense of smell, sight and hearing to keep track of the mother. With time, as they grow up, people acquire new skills. This is where the environment comes into play. In the overall, an individual development is a combination of genetics, intelligence and the environment learning involves a lot of memory. It requires a lot of mental juggling, and choosing what is wrong from what is right. A learner must make the right judgment to gauge what the teacher or instructor is teaching them. When the lecturer gives their point, students should repeat what they are being taught. It is important to take notes. These are forms of learning and attention that a learner is expected to be equipped to. Research Methodologies

Perhaps, understanding of the cognition and typologies today was made possible through contribution of a Swiss psychologist, Carl Jung. Isabel Myers later emphasized his work. She developed the famous “psychology types that have become common in the modern world. She gave a detailed description of the typologies that are used today. She developed self-reporting questionnaires that were commonly known as ‘Myers-Briggs Indicator Type'. She drafted different types of personalities, 16 in total. She categorized the personality types for ease of identification by using a four code name that is easy to memorize and reproduce, should there be a need to do this (Feldman, n.a).

Jung noticed that there are two major types of people. There are the introverts derive motivation from within themselves. They are not outgoing. They make decisions without involving other people. They prefer to be alone and make independent decisions. This behavior stems from their genetic makeup, but social scientists believe that the environment, in which one grows, contributes a lot to a personal development. These will be expounded on in the later parts of this paper.

The second type of person is the extrovert. These people are externally motivated. They are outgoing and easy in interaction. They are not afraid to make decisions. They believe in openness. They are confident and do not easily give in to external pressures. Again, much will be discussed in the later stages of this paper.

According to Jung, the fundamental differences come about in explaining whether a person is oriented, extraverted or introverted. Are they more oriented to the world outside them in terms of their thoughts, feelings, reactions, ideas and memories? What each category of people does in their own ‘world' is a subject of their genetic and environmental makeup. Jung noted profound differences in the two worlds. He called the differences “functions,” or what are commonly known as cognitive thought processes (MacLaughlin, 1976).


  1. Cole, M. W., Yarkoni, T., Repovs%u030C, G., Anticevic, A., & Braver, T. S. (January 01, 2012). Global connectivity of prefrontal cortex predicts cognitive control and intelligence. The Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 26, 8988-8999.
  2. Feldman, J. M. (n.d.). Beyond attribution theory: cognitive processes in performance appraisal. Industrial and Organizational Psychology. 2 / Edited by Cary L. Cooper.
  3. MacLaughlin, S. D. (January 01, 1976). Cognitive processes and school learning: A review of research on cognition in Africa. African Studies Review: the Journal of the African Studies Association, 19, 1, 75-93.
  4. Peklaj, C., & Vodopivec, B. (January 01, 1999). Effects of cooperative versus individualistic learning on cognitive, affective, metacognitive and social processes in students. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 14, 3, 359-373.
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