Advertisements in our Life

In our life, advertising and media images play a crucial role in social taste formation. Advertising plays a dominant role in modern world because it has a great impact on perceptions and attitudes of potential buyers. Media images perform the necessary functions of informing and persuading, which are both complementary and conflicting. Viewers want it to guide their consumption decisions in an objective manner, whereas advertisers want it to achieve mass selling by aggregating mass demand so that mass production can be stabilized and supported. The reasons for the use of Media images are clear media images affect both costs and revenues; used effectively, it can increase sales and profits. It supplements and improves the effectiveness of other elements of the marketing mix, it alters the predisposition of potential purchasers, it provides information, and it gains brand loyalty, attracting customers and stimulating viewer desire and action. As a principal means of illuminating the attributes that differentiate a product, media images is a competitive weapon that can secure a market niche and assure some stability in the marketplace by shaping demand curves, making them more inelastic, and extending markets.

Susan Bordi on her essay “Beauty (Re)discovers the Male Body” vividly portrays the formation of an ideal sexual body and popularization of men’s sexuality. From the viewer's standpoint, media images inform and persuades. Advertising furnishes information, calls attention to some clues and not others, changes attitudes and opinions, relates products to viewer need, gives viewers support for their decisions, affects the intensity of desires, and thereby generates action. A lack of consensus often exists within a company as to what ads is designed to do. All of these are legitimate ads tasks, each of which requires a different solution. It is germane to distinguish the task of maintaining market position from that of cultivating and developing new markets. Bordo writes:

Despite their bisexual appeal, the cultural genealogy of the ads is to be traced largely through gay male aesthetics, rather than a sudden blossoming of appreciation for the fact that women might enjoy looking at sexy, well-hung young men who don't appear to be about to rape them (Bordo 179).

For each of these images, the nature of ads tasks is indicated by the decisions that must be made: the amount of money to be spent on ads, the allocation of the budget among classes of media, the specific media to be selected within each class, the frequency and continuity of ads, the makeup of the specific messages to be presented, and the kinds and amount of ads research. These are difficult decisions to make (Black 33).

These are most difficult to resolve, and there are many opinions. They are difficult because one's personal ideas about sex and morality must be tied to them, and not everyone thinks the same way in such matters. For example, how much moral guidance -- that is, how much emphasis on right and wrong -should be portrayed in ads? Some people have strong ideas about that. They may feel that virginity, "saving yourself" sexually for the right person, usually with marriage in mind, is the most desirable goal, and they may emphasize that in teaching about sex and sexuality (Black 76).

The ads portrays that having sex is a perfectly natural act, that people can't really change their desire for sex, and that since they're going to do it anyway they would better learn everything there is to know, so they will handle it right. Some are convinced that sex, especially those aspects that deal with values and responsibility, should be taught in the home. Continuity, stability, and principle were female. Beautiful forms are mainly aesthetic (meant to induce innocently pleasurable sensations, even if on occasion they threatened to appeal to amoral tastes), and they must be explicitly moral in order to further principles of love and virtue. Ideal beauty image requires that each generation collaboratively create and declare its own social and aesthetic standards, codes, and norms for ideal truth and beauty. The ideal is a matter of individual preference, and individual since the experience of truth and beauty can neither be created nor discovered but can only -- simply, amazingly –happen. For instance, modernism movement wore a harried masculine face. Classicism and serenity were feminine in feature and arrayed in the white folds of a Grecian garment. Ordinary men might want to go forth to "make" a society founded upon stable rules of thought and conduct, but women (like proper Bostonians and the headgear they inherit) "have" ideals. Men are recognized by the deeds they accomplish. Women are identified by the ideals they represent. Even the staunchest supporters of stability had to admit that there was precious little about late-nineteenth-century life that satisfied their taste. It was not enough for them to repeat the tiresome fact that permanence was what they desired, although it was not what they had. The visual representations of virtuous order which the American advocates of ideal values commissioned for the walls, corridors, and rotundas of churches, libraries, and courthouses existed in a tarnished world. Bordo claims that

"It required a Calvin Klein to give the new vision cultural form. But the fact is that if we've entered a brave, new world of male bodies it is largely because of a more "material" kind of epiphany --a dawning recognition among advertisers of the buying power of gay men. (Bordo 180).

In sexual ads, beauty lead to great change in viewer habits, a fact that may shift the focus of the ads job. During periods of expanding markets, volume, price, and distribution channels are important factors and mass ads supports them. As markets mature, ads becomes a competitive weapon. Now minor product adjustments are stressed to persuade viewers who know the product to select it over competitors' products, and to endeavor to increase the rate of use. Ads do support the actual distribution of products, and can be used to push or pull a product through distribution channels (Bordo 220).

The examples of Calvin Klein show that by creating demand at the ultimate viewer level, ads can influence retailer and wholesaler decisions to carry a product -- this pulls the product through the channels. Conversely, by aggressive promotion, by the development of dealer and retailer campaigns, by providing ads allowances, and by preparing merchandising programs, ads can also push a product through the channels of distribution to final viewers. Ads also helps create and maintain marketing systems. It can foster interfirm coordination and linkages of manufacturers, wholesalers, and retailers. Continued ads after a purchase gives the customer public acknowledgment of his wise choice, and tends to eliminate or reduce cognitive dissonance. (Bordo 216)

Bordo underlines that self-consciousness about the current state of affairs in the United States, the awareness that caused the desire for permanence in the first place, instilled the need to argue for the presence of stone images of Charity and Knowledge or elaborate murals centered by Justice and Bounty. True, some Americans tried to go home again into the timeless realms where absolute principles supposedly once existed in happy contiguity with great men and women. most of those committed to idealism tried to bring its tenets to bear directly upon the particular sexual scene in which they were fated to live. If they were to escape the psychic damage done to those who merely lament the decline of society, they had to bring idealism into line with provocative new ideas of evolution . The world is changing. Idealists could not blink that fact. If they could read change as development, perhaps they could uncover the hitherto hidden process by which Reality in America is en route to the Ideal.  Then all those statues and paintings of allegorical subjects would be validated by the future; they would prove to be symbolic representations which wake up to find they are true. Raw change meant the future doom of still greater instability and of knowledge replaced by chaos (Bordo 201). The circulation of the make sexual images depended on its ability to attract the favor of the immigrant groups, especially in the face of the fact that the latter were setting up their own native-language papers.  If the chance to become the American Girl was part of the bright promise, then that promise had to be open to all pretty young women who might "pass" socially, economically, or racially for the true type. Images of males rule most of the material (verbal and pictorial) introduced in the following section because this is how the physiognomical issues of the time chose to present their arguments.

In sum, the male beauty and sexuality is a complex notion which involves ideals of body and soul. The urge to classify all the world's many things is an impulse which has received encouragement from science. The social sciences with their avidity for categorizing behavioral patterns were already elbowing their way forward with statistics, charts, and lists of norms and averages. Exclusion remains in force wherever desire for "the better thing" (defined according to social conventions of virtue) controls the content of art. In contrast, there is no room for disgust per se with objects included within patterns laid across art surfaces. Finally design exacts correctness; it excludes forms that do not meet its stern criteria for aesthetic beauty.

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