Question 1. Would Sosik, Jung, and Dinger (2009) argue that cultural change reinforces values salience within an organization, and if so, would that affect altruistic leadership behavior?
Sosik, Jung, and Dinger (2009) argue that the values’ salience of the organization is highly dependent on the cultural level of the company. The wider the culture spreads in the organization, the more difficult it is to change it. A weak culture is rather susceptible to changes. Therefore, cultural changes will positively affect the employees’ working conditions: sharing common values will make personnel goal-oriented, motivated, and solid.
The value of corporate culture for the development of any organization depends on a number of circumstances. First, it gives employees an organizational identity, defines the intra picture of the company, and it is an important source of stability and continuity in the organization. It creates a sense of security among the staff of the organization and their position in it, as well as contributes to a sense of social security. Second, being aware of company’s organizational culture helps new employees to interpret the most important and significant events occurring in the organization. Third, the organizational culture, more than anything else, encourages self-awareness and high responsibility of the employee performing the assigned tasks. Recognizing and rewarding these people is important. Organizational culture identifies them as role models.
Altruistic leadership behavior occurs when the leader sacrifices his/her personal interests, desires, and aims for the sake of the team’s well-being. In terms of company’s cultural changes, such leader will play a role of coach and tutor. Therefore, such leadership style will help to build organizational culture that is based on the team building.
Question 2. Why are organizations in need of emancipation to begin with, and is it possible to produce an ethical culture?
The emancipation of women strives for the equation of both sexes’ rights coming from the idea that originally, all human individuals are equal. Gender inequality has its origin in violent subjugation of women by men. Therefore, emancipation is an act of liberation and restoration of the natural state and the triumph of law over the usurpation. As the women began to act as economically and socially independent individuals, they sought to build their relationship with on the partnership basis (Kotter 1992). Thus, it is rather important to create organizational culture that would not negatively and distractively affect the relationship between women and men. However, despite the fact of emancipation process in the organization, it is necessary to remember that still there are careers that are more appropriate for men. Thus, this kind of job involves more male than female employees. Therefore, during the transformation of organizational culture that is based on the espoused values, it is important to create such organizational spirit that will help to solve the problem of emancipation in the organization.
Corporate ethics is a system of values and ethical attitude of the organization toward different problems both inside and outside of the organization. Rules should always be implemented to ensure stability of the enterprise and limit the principle of profit maximization, which causes conflicts with management of specific departments of the company. Corporate ethics is a part of regulatory system of organization’s corporate culture. Ethics should be involved in all aspects, no matter what happens in the company. It must constantly motivate to action. The company cannot be a little ethical or ethical only when it is beneficial. Morality is absolute. According to this, it is rather hard to build ethical culture, but it is as hard as to build effective organizational culture. That is why, during transformation of organizational culture, ethical culture creation should be one of the main parts of such changes, because absence of ethics in the organization will not provide any possibility for creation of the espoused value-oriented culture.
Question 3. What are the pitfalls of subscribing to a critical management culture?
Critical management culture is a range of approaches, trends, and theoretical discourse, inspect and critique of culture based on the knowledge of social sciences and humanities. The term “critical management” involves a variety of approaches based on critical and reflective attitude toward the current situation in any area. It also tries to “explain the occurrence of the object of his/her knowledge” (Reynolds 1999).
During the creation of critical management culture, there may be some problems connected with the personnel’s resistance to changes. It is the biggest pitfall that arises on the ground of individual understanding and reflection of events that happen with every employee. Critical thinking implementation requires person’s critical assessment of any subject as well as full understanding of positive and negative sides of the point of view, either his/her own or stated by colleagues. That is why, in order to create critical management culture, top managers should firstly evoke great desire among employees to implement such strategy and, only in this case, change resistance will not have destructive consequences in terms of performance of whole organization and, especially, its culture.
One of the disadvantages of critical management culture is disappearance of positive sides of most of the decision. It may occur due to excessive criticism, which can lead to the reduction of risky decisions. In this case, the pitfall can be regarded as the decrease of creativity and innovations in the company.