In organizations, it is important to introduce the workforce to training sessions. During these sessions, the team learns a wide range of information. It is important to carry out an evaluation and measurement test of the training sessions in order to measure their effectiveness. The organizations perform the evaluation of training sessions to ensure a fruitful return. Organizations employ certain models to evaluate and measure the effectiveness of the training sessions. Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model can aid organizations to impartially evaluate the effectiveness and impact of the training sessions. Four-Level Training Evaluation model has four levels which include reaction, learning, behavior, and results. These levels cater for the employees in order to receive feed back after a training session (Kirkpatrick, 2003).
Reaction level illustrates the view of the employees about the training session. It measures the reaction of the employees towards the training. The organizations strive to ensure that the training session is helpful experience for the employees. It is important to ensure that the employees create a healthy relationship between the tutor, the topic, material, venue and the presentation. Healthy relationships during training create a favorable learning environment for the employees. It is very vital for the organizations to carry out an evaluation and measurement test of reaction among the employees. The evaluation and measurement test helps to understand how well the training session was acknowledged by the trainees. Still, the training evaluation model helps the organization on improving the training for future employees. The training model also helps in recognizing essential areas that may have been skipped during training. In the reaction level, organizations involve certain questions in order to measure reaction. It is important to enquire their feelings towards the training and whether they consider it worthwhile. The employees should clearly state if the training session was effective. The organization should enquire whether the training session accommodated their individual learning styles. The employees should express their views on the strengths and weaknesses of the training session. It is also important understand their liking for the presentation mode and the venue of training. There are several methods of acquiring information from the employees regarding the training session. The organization could use satisfaction surveys from the employees or questionnaires. The body language of the trainees during training could also give feedback about their reaction. Verbal feedback from the trainees is also a good source of information about their experience during training. The collected information should be scrutinized properly, and make changes in the training sessions based on the employees’ feedback and suggestions. This level caters for the needs of the employees. Organizations should be highly concerned on methods of motivating their employees to engage in the learning sessions (Kirkpatrick, 2003).
Learning level in the training evaluation describes the increment of knowledge and skills among the employees. It is expected that the employees should be highly capable of performing well at work after the training sessions. Commonly, it measured after the training sessions. In order measure learning after training, it is important that the supervisors identify a mode of evaluation. The supervisor should decide n the thing to evaluate among the employees. In an instance, the supervisor could evaluate the adjustments in knowledge, skills, and attitudes. It is important that the supervisor in the organization measure and evaluate these spots before andafter the training sessions (Kirkpatrick, 2003). The supervisor should ensure that the trainees are tested to determine their skill levels, attitude, and knowledge. The trainees should another evaluation test after the training sessions. The test illustrates the level of learning among the employees after training. The supervisors could perform the evaluation test through verbal assessments and interviews. Learning level in training evaluation model clearly shows the consequential boost in skills level, knowledge and, and amend in attitudes. The evaluation test takes place during the training in the mode of a test.
Behavior level illustrates the behavioral modification among the employees after the learning sessions. The employees are expected to portray their capability progression. This level involves a long period of evaluation and measurement procedure. It is challenging for the organizations to evaluate behavior among employees effectively. It is an exercise that should be carried out for a prolonged time. Approximately, this process could take place for weeks or months after the training session. There are effective way of evaluating behavior such as continuous interviews and observation. The organization should acknowledge that behavioral change occurs in a favorable environment. The organizational culture should be set up for behavior adjustments. The employees should receive support from the organization during the transition. The organization should encourage the trainees by offering rewards to appreciate the behavioral change. The organization should ensure that the employees do not get back to their old norms (Kirkpatrick, 2003).
The results level shows the achievements of the business as a result of the employees’ performance. Evaluating the last results of the training sessions is time consuming. Organizations experience challenges while categorizing the outcomes and benefits that are very close to the training. It is very important to develop effective methods of evaluating the outcomes over the long period. In this level, the supervisor should consider certain outcomes among the employees. Still, the organization should have the objectives of the training session. Following the training session, there should be elevated rate of production in the firm. The employees should be capable of attending to the needs of the customer effectively. This could be evident from increased consumer satisfaction. The employer should realize a boost in the morale of the employees after the training sessions. Gathering information in this level is time consuming. It takes a prolonged period to complete the evaluation test.
Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model has some weaknesses that prevent several organizations from employing it for training evaluation. The third and forth level are perceived as expensive and time consuming. Some organizations cannot afford to employ the levels for evaluation. Still, it is difficult to use the model in organizations that lack a responsible human resource team. It is not practical for the organizations to use Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model (Wick, Pollock, Jefferson & Flanagan, 2006). The Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model presupposes that the significance of each level is greater than the other, and that the four levels are related. In an instance, the model suggests that the reaction level is less significant than results at the end. The model also implies that the reactions of the employees must be affirmative for learning to occur. Still, every level is assumed to be related to the previous levels. In this model, the supervisors lack the attention to levels 3 and 4 unlike the other two levels. It breaks the chain connection among the level. The model is considered ancient. The first and the second level are prone to personal interpretation thus inhibiting accurate conclusions.
On the other hand, the model has strengths that make it suitable. It is widely acknowledged in numerous environments such as the professional and industry environments. It is also perceived as easy to comprehend. It is a less complicated model to use for training evaluation. Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model helps companies in improving the performance of the employees. It measures the level of knowledge and skills acquired in the training. It helps organizations to evaluate the effectiveness of training objectively. The training evaluation model is flexible and reliable. It allows the supervisor to formulate the questions depending on the purpose of evaluation (Kirkpatrick, 1999).
Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model should be used in industry and professional settings to evaluate their training sessions. The model is also practical in educational settings. The learners could employ it in creating lesson plans. Companies that have strong and dedicated human resource team should find it practical to use Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model. The model is not practical in low capital businesses. The evaluation and training process involves large financial spending. It is also impractical in businesses that have very few employees. The employers in the small businesses set the rules that should be followed by the employees. These businesses could lack enough funds to complete the entire evaluation. (Kirkpatrick, 1999)
Over the years, the globe has advanced technologically. Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model has been perceived as an ancient model of training evaluation. However, the model has not found a replacing model. The evaluation training model requires certain modifications in order to be effective (Phillips, 2001). In the reaction level, motivation should replace it. During the training process, the learner should decide whether to focus or not. If the task is challenging the trainee is lowly motivated to pursue training. An important and simple task motivates the trainee into paying attention to the training session. According to Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model, reaction portrays the trainees liking for the training process. If a task is irrelevant to the employees, it is difficult to have their genuine attention during training. They should evaluate the motivation of the trainees. On the other hand, behavior level should be changed to performance. Performance is an enhanced point than behavior. This is because performance holds two aspects which include behavior and consequence. Behavior portrays the means and consequence illustrates the end. Commonly, the end result is vital in the business environment (Nadler, 2008).
These changes in the model would be very effective in the organizations. Motivation level would cater for the perception of the trainees before attending the training sessions. It would ensure that the employees are ready for the training sessions. Still, it would be important to acknowledge whether the employees are interested in the desired performance. The performance level should clearly indicate what the trainees should perform in order create desired results in the organization. This would ensure that the employees are concerned about the outcomes of their performance.
In the organizations, the revised model can be used for planning and evaluation of the learning sessions. Moreover, it helps the troubling-shooting procedure. The revised model could also be used to carry out results evaluation, which is very vital to the business leaders. In order to foster training in an organization, the model needs to perform evaluation of performance, learning, and motivation. The results of evaluation show the significance of training in the organization. Still, the model could be used to motivate the employees attend training sessions. The motivation level in the revised model caters for the perception of the employees towards learning. The organization should use the model to create a clear picture of the expected achievements. The revised model could be used to gather information regarding the needs and expectations of the employees. The model identifies issues that were left out during training. Therefore, the revised model could be used to improve the training sessions. The evaluation procedure turns more difficult and time-consuming; but, the third and fourth levels provide information that is of considerable value (Phillips, 2001).