Leadership is defined as the process through which people or a person influences other people with the main aim being to accomplish the set objectives and attaining a common goal. The position of being a lead, manager, or supervisor gives the individual authority to carry out various objectives and tasks in the organization. Even though the power given does not make them a leader but it only makes the boss. There are various types of leadership which depict the concepts of power and influence (Rowe, 2007).
Assigned leadership depicts power where the leader just bosses the employees around whereas emergent leadership depicts influence where the leader influences the employees to aim at attaining high and great goals (Northouse, 2007). There is the aspect that leadership is founded on the type of relationships among people other than on the capabilities of one person. The influence and power theory of leadership finds a network of interaction among people, fashioned by the influence and power that comes from the leader himself. Followership and leadership are the outcomes of the flow of the power among different individuals. Influence and power offer the motive power that works behind every organization, initiative and lubrication that keeps the people in the organization from grinding, binding and self-destructing (Northouse, 2007).
There are various influence strategies in leadership which include rewards to the employees for good acts and punishment to the employees for mistakes done. There is also expertise to the employees which may either be positive or negative (Newstrom & Davis 1993). There is also liking and ingratiation which raises confidence and self esteem of the people who are being led. An inspirational appeal is a strategic influence method used by leaders to capture follower’s enthusiasm and emotions towards achieving a certain goal and objective when the leader emotional expresses the expectations to followers. To achieve this, the followers ideas and values must be understood, establish a link between the follower’s concept and the appeal, employ non-verbal communication to strengthen verbal message and finally use of positive and optimistic approach. There is also pre-giving and gifting for good deeds or also for enticement in order to raise the people’s morale in carrying out their duties. There is also the utilization of moral appeal which means that the leader finds moral common ground for the employees and then employs the moral commitment of the individuals in order to obtain compliance.
There is the influential strategy of self-feeling which may either be positive or negative depending on the situation. This is where the leader makes the undesirable to seem very desirable. This is because human people avoid pain and seek pleasure. In cases where the tasks are less desirable, boring, or painful when compared to other tasks, it is important to make the tasks seem more desirable. This is however tied to the satisfaction of the customer. Coupled with this strategy is the consultative approach which involves the consolidation of views from all the stakeholders to formulate a policy acceptable by all. This approach recognizes everyone’s views and ideas hence instilling a sense of commitment to the implementation process. There is also altercating which may either be positive or negative depending on the issues that could be in hand and require tackling. There is also the use of altruism where there is the use of favor often. This is an influence tactic which very often used. There is also the esteem of others by the employees which maybe either positive or negative. Individuals are more often alert about what other people deem them to be and this fact needs to be kept in high and good terms. This is why people will be influenced to carry out certain tasks in order to be highly esteemed by other colleagues and persons (Kerry et al, 2007).
The leaders should seek to change the minds of their employees and this would bring change to the organization. The employees should adopt healthier and new behaviors. This may be done through verbal persuasion which is not very effective. The other option which proves to be effective should be rational persuasion. This is carefully practiced after all its pros and cons are evaluated and the advantageous option is selected to achieve optimal results. This could also be done through creating personal experiences where some of them are taken for field trips in order to have first hand information and then teach the rest of the members of the organization (Ivancevich, Konopaske & Matteson, 2007).
There is the need to create a culture of teamwork which would help, share, and support and collaborate leading to customer satisfaction. Leadership is a concept that plays a paramount role in the implementation of development plans and other policies. However, of all the existing leadership approaches and strategies available, rational persuasion is the most influential since it’s formal and sets structures and guidelines to be followed by all the stakeholders. It is therefore recommended that all these approaches should be implemented in collaborative approach. With perspective of their effectiveness, all the strategies adopted should favor the wellbeing of both the leader and the followers.