Marketing is More of an Art than a Science

In spite of the fact that the word ‘marketing’ is a common word, many people do not actually know what it means. Marketing is not just advertising, promoting or selling, it is the process of management which strives to identify, anticipate, and to satisfy the requirements  of the customers and to also provide the desired results effectively and efficiently to the businessmen (Lodato 2006).  

In the modern world some marketers determine financial impact of their marketing strategies being unaware of analytics, measurement and predictive tools, including decision trees, balance score card, time series analysis, hypothesis testing and marketing ratios, predictive modeling, multiple regression analysis, and scenario planning. Instead of Excel, they choose PowerPoint to present their business cases and, of course, which might lead to failure. Being an art, marketing cannot exist without science. However, there are a lot of marketing functions which require more creativity than science; those functions are new product development, sales promotions, branding, PR and advertising. Nowadays, marketing is defined as “the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational goals” (Keefe 2004) and makes the organization run.

The art of marketing presupposes discovering the purpose of a given business, what you are going to achieve and how to make it the life purpose. As only you have these resources and can deliver them to the audience, it means that you act as a marketing artist (The Art and Science of Marketing 2012). Being an art, marketing goes along with creativity, innovation and extravagance (Vaile 1949).

There is no doubt that marketing management has elements of science, as managers have to show logical information about the product to customers, but their art should be used to create interest, to facilitate the exchange and to promise the mutual benefit to both parties (Pride, Elliot, Rundle-Thiele, Waller, Paladino & Ferrell 2007).

Levison states that thinking is based on art and facilitates the understanding of human activity and philosophy through making the relationship between society and the self-visual on different levels, including the formalized relationships interpretation and informal personalized interactions (Levinson 1979, p. 232). Thus, any organization needs to be artistic to some extent, in order to achieve a desired goal.

The art of marketing is often considered to be mysterious to computer specialists, accountants, engineers, and other technically-oriented people. It becomes evident when it comes to the new product commercialization, process or startup of the business venture that they are technically-driven. It is not enough to learn the marketing formulas secret, in order to be successful in marketing, as marketing is more an art than a science and the formulas do not help. 

In the modern high-tech world, it is necessary to search out a marketing artist rather than an all-in-one craftsman. A good example is the development of xerography. Having obtained a patent on xerography, Chester Carlson started to look for the ways to commercialize it. He was an attorney for a research organization in Columbus (Battelle) and decided to send one patent copy to them for review. The organization became interested and agreed to invest in the technology, requiring 55% of the patent rights and making some technical improvements. However, only a small market-oriented company (Haloid Company in Rochester, NY) understood how to commercialize this machine which was expensive and service-intensive. Due to this, the Xerox 914 was born in 1963. Thus, the president of Haloid Company is praised for the art of marketing, which resulted in the success of xerography. He leased the machine only for $100 a month, but took a penny for every copy made on it.

The marketing process is generally based on 4 P’S of marketing: product, price, promotion, and place). Product management is oriented on the fulfillment of customer needs and requires continuous work on the goods and services (Rix 2007)). It presupposes product development, brand maintaining, packaging and quality. In order to play an important role in product management, a manager has to be a good artist. Quality and brands are also important elements of successful product management. We can often predict consumer and market behavior, using different scientific methods, but the decisions which are made on the basis of scientific results prove not to be always correct. A good example is the Coca Cola Co that wanted to develop a new product. A lot of surveys and researches were done in the market, but the product collapsed after it was launched. The customer wanted the classic Coke back and did not accept the new product. As a result, the company was to re-launch the old coke. It is evident that even if you use the science of marketing in the right way, it will not necessarily bring success, as people may lose their faith in the brand. Price influences products, place, and promotion where the rest of the 4 P’S of marketing require money. In the past, a price was calculated, based on the production and marketing cost. Nowadays, it is set by in an artistic way due to the competitive market and disposable consumer income. Seeing a car in a car yard hoe, the customer looks at colorful stickers with the price of the cars and views $11 995 as cheaper than $12 000, and $29 950 as more economic than $30 000. This tactic of pricing has been used for many products, especially in the groceries, where you see $2.98 or $2.99 instead of $3.00 do not take into account the fact that there are no longer one and two cent coins. Thus, the pricing tactic is a mere grab of customer attention. Promotion is considered to be the art of communicating message (Boaz 1998, p. 169). At the same time, art is a creative form of expression and communication. Creativity plays an important role in the process of communication. Being the way of communication, advertisement could be done through radio, television, the Internet, flyer, direct mail, and other ways. Bright examples are Mcbooks and iPods by Apple Co. Their marketing strategies show more art than science, as the products feature attractive and beautiful packaging, good design, and slick the experience of a user. After watching their advertisements, people really want to buy the products. Thus, the managers are highly creative people who manage to apply scientific principles to managing the art. Being a mere art advertisement may be suitable for one product, but may not work for another. Place means distribution. It includes all possible responsibilities and decisions which are associated with getting good from a seller to a customer. Place deals with different methods of storing, transporting goods, and making them available. The correct system of distribution presupposes getting the right product to the right place and at the right time. The choice of distribution methods relies on various circumstances, as it is based on the marketing research. Being effective researches, business people have to be good experts in the artistic areas of communication, human relation, marketing history and current events. This will definitely help to provide the right product to the right place at the right time, and to the right person. The mix of production, place, price, and promotion is often considered to be the toolkit of effective marketing and the archetype for the planning of operational marketing (Gronoroos 1994, p. 347).

Customer Relationship Management and Corporate Social Responsibility are the parts of marketing management which need the influence of artistic advertising. The example is advertising of horrifying pictures on the packs of cigarettes. Frame made the conclusion that business case is impressive, whereas moral justification is outstanding (Frame 2005, p. 430).

It is necessary not to underestimate the need for marketing art, while developing a product or business (Agno 1995), as marketing is a strategic craft of correct determination and communication with people in order to make and keep them as customers, as it is tightly related to the financial press, key partners, favored suppliers, new employees, and others (Fishler 2000).

The examination of the marketing process shows that the effective market researcher has to be a skilled artist who deals with a wide spectrum of marketing which ranges depending on the artist, from quantatively to qualitatively oriented research. Great artistry is also inevitable, while choosing business opportunities and solving problems. It is necessary to design appropriate methods in a creative way and to execute programs to generate relevant information and to analyze in order to make decisions. A good marketing manager has to master the art of written and oral communication to be able to present the results of the market. In general, marketing is an art which can be scientifically managed (Byrd 1987) and successful marketing should combine the science (winning physical product formulating) with the art (marketing strategy and implementation), where art predominates due to the fact that this combination needs the application of crude tools and the system of methods and principles with the help of skillful performance which cannot be learnt solely by studying. Marketing is an art. In order to achieve success, it is important for business people to also be artists and express creativity. It also requires perfection through personal skills, creativity, practice and practical knowledge.

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