Organizational development is a process by which businesses and organizations are planned to enhance their effectiveness and viability. It is a complex strategy in response to change that is intended to mould the beliefs, attitudes, values, and the structure of the organization for it to adapt to the challenges of new technology, market and its internal changes to cope with the dynamic environment. The organization development is a long term strategy designed to improve the problem solving of the organization and renewal of processes through effective and collaborative management culture. This problem solving is assisted by the change agents, which apply the theory and technology of behavioral science, which provide the foundation of organizational development.
The process of OD is differentiated from other organizational changes systems due to its emphasis on processes rather than the problems. Its initiative is to focus on the identification of the behavioral interactions which cause and sustain problems. A healthy organization is created that has the capability of anticipating and preventing of problems, rather than the isolation of behaviors causing the problems. OD stresses the collaborative management where different hierarchies work together and recognizes the all organizations being unique as the same some solutions cannot be applied to a different organization. The programs of OD value the teamwork of individual groups as they enhance the implementation of change in the organization without resistance. Thus, the assumptions are reflected on OD focus on research and feedback. The OD entails two activities that include research and intervention. Active research is the collection of organizational data that will help in the evaluation and interpretation of the statistical analysis. The results of the action plan are measured and new plans are devised that effect the new changes.
The intervention is the plans which encompass specific activities that are designed to effect the change in the organization. The intervention addresses different problems creating results that are geared to the improvement of the whole organization through changes. For an organization to achieve high degree of change, the full range of intervention must be employed. They are designed to enhance transformation of individuals, groups and intergroup behaviors and attitudes, as they are targeted toward the policies of operation, management structures, workers skills and the personnel policies. The interventions are categorized according to the target group and the industry type.
The OD intervention is classified by the size of the group and the interrelationship, which include interpersonal relation, group processes, intergroup systems and the overall organization. The interpersonal relations are designed in the enhancement of individual skills, knowledge and effectiveness. This helps them to be aware of who they are and coworkers behavioral patterns. This is through leaving the subject in the context of the stipulated goals by the members as they try to exert structure, thus, becoming aware of their own feelings and behaviors with others. This interpersonal intervention helps to improve the review process performance as the workers identify their wants setting goals and resolving conflicts.
The group intervention helps teams and groups in becoming more effective as they assume the most effective group communicate well, facilitating healthy balance between the individuals and group needs. These interventions are meetings where the group analyzes their performance and what is needed to improve and potential solutions to eminent problems. The problems are communicated to the coworkers resolving them, thus, improving the group dynamics and the elimination of incongruent actions that diminish the efficiency of the group. The intergroup interventions help the integration facilitating cooperation and efficiency among the different groups in the organization. This is due to the deterioration of the departmental interaction due to the battle of the limited resources. The comprehensive interventions are used to enhance change directly to the entire organization, rather than the focusing of change to group intervention. This is entailed at surveying the attitudes of the employees in all levels of the organization and reporting of feedback to them, which creates solutions to the perceived problems.
Origin and History of Coca Cola
Coca Cola dates back to 1886. It was invented by a pharmacist from Atlanta in Georgia; Dr. John Pemberton. 125 years later, it is the most consumed soft drink all over the world. Statistics indicates that the company sells 1.7billion drinks a day. The brand name was the idea of Pemberton’s bookkeeper, Frank Robinson. In the first year of establishment, the brand recorded a loss. The following year, Asa Chandler bought the brand. It was during the leadership of Chandler that the brand picked up and by the early 1900, it was becoming the most popular drink in America. In the 1960s, the brand took a new turn when the soda fountain was abandoned and the company adapted the bottling industry. The brand has expanded over 200 countries in the world today. The Coca Cola logo was registered in 1887 as the company’s trademark. Ever since, the logo became the brand’s corporate identity.
The logo adapted for Coca Cola is rated among the most recognized brand and logo design all over the world. It was first designed by Frank Robinson. The typeface used is referred to as Spencerian script. It was invented in the 19th century due to the handwriting that was dominant in the United States of America at the time. The choice of the red and white color scheme was chosen so as to lure the minds of young people. The Coca Cola bottle was also symbolic. It symbolized the exuberant factor in American youths. Over the years, the bottle has been redesigned into various forms. However, the most outstanding design was the design of 1915. It was commonly referred to as the ‘contour bottle’ or ‘hobble skirt.’
Coca Cola has been faced with competition just like any other industry. The largest competitor is Pepsi. Pepsi outdoes Coca Cola in some markets but an overall examination indicates that Coca Cola is more competitive in terms of the volume of sales. The brand also faces competition from local brands in the various countries. For instance, in the UK, it faces competition from the Robinson’s drinks. In India, it faces competition from the local brand, Thumbs Up. In the Middle East, the brand faces enormous competition from Parsi Cola and Zam Zam Cola.
Objectives of the Company
In any organization, there are leaders who are incorporated in the management of the firm. They have the responsibility to carry out the managerial functions effectively and efficiently. They should be in a position to implement their leadership skills in performance of their duties and responsibilities. Leadership and management may appear to have the same meaning, but this is not the case. For effective management, one requires leadership skills in order to gain confidence and trust from the people served. As the proverbs goes, “unity is strength”, the same applies to people working together in achieving the same goal.
A good and successful leader should also be decisive in his entire decision making process. This goes hand in hand with self-confidence even in the most difficult situations. This helps to instill confidence in the subordinates even when things are tough. A leader should also exercise humility and should occasionally take some time off to socialize with his followers in order to maintain a good working relationship with them. He should be able to work under pressure as showing any signs of weakness to his competitors would negatively impact the progress of the firm. A good leader will have some interest in the happenings both inside and outside so that they can analyze the competition effectively. This is the challenge that the leaders at Coca Cola were faced with. They had a difficult time trying to decide the appropriate strategy that would meet the goal of profit maximization.
In any working environment, there are some established rules of effective working. These rules are implemented so as to ensure that the set goals and objectives are achieved in the business. One of the main reasons why these rules exist is so as to guide individuals. These guidelines help the different individuals to coordinate activities among themselves so as to achieve the expected results. Since the working environment consists of many personalities, they operate as a team. Within the team, there are established rules on how the team operates. This is extremely vital since it helps in attainment of the set goals. It also prevents random decisions. In order for the team to be successful in its undertakings, the team members must enhance communication amongst them. This ensures that each person is aware of their responsibility in the team. It also gives room for reinforcement of team-based innovations.
Within the team, tasks must be shared out in accordance to established personal skills and abilities. This ensures that the person who is best skilled in a certain field carries out the particular task on behalf of the team. This ensures that each individual is at ease while carrying out these activities. This largely enhances effective working. Therefore, the team must come up with a way of establishing each person’s expertise. This could be achieved through the implementation of a performance evaluation system. This would enable any organization or team to make decisions on who should carry out which activity on behalf of the team. This greatly contributes to effective working and team building (Hill & Jones 2009 p. 175)
A good manager should be knowledgeable and competent so that he can effectively influence and direct his subordinates. He must strive to practice integrity and honesty always. This is because a manager and should be a role model to the rest by exercising good values and ethics. Moreover, manager should be courageous and not afraid to take the initiative. He should be a go- getter and should grab opportunities as they arise rather than sit waiting for them to drop on his lap. This will help him to push the organization to a higher level and he will always be one step ahead. He also ought to possess good and fluent communication skills. This is to allow him to communicate his business ideas clearly to his subordinate, for implementation. Motivation skills are also important for a manager to posses at all times. This is because he will constantly need to motivate demoralized workers into continuing to work. A good manager needs to constantly motivate his team to put more effort in their expertise in order to complete a task successfully (Clark 2009, p. 86).
No manager is expected to possess all of these traits, however, they can acquire them through training and discipline. A good leader needs to have the capacity to make and develop a team of people and lead them effectively to achieving the business goals. Nevertheless, there are so many known traits of a good manager in books and other sources that cannot all be exhausted. The crucial factor in picking a manager besides the academic credentials is choosing someone who can be a leader and someone who has proved their commitment to the organization. This can be established by reviewing their work record while in a junior position. For example, someone who was lazy and did not yield good results as an assistant manager cannot be expected to start working when they are promoted irrespective of their academic credentials. Therefore, managers are people who can take the company to the next step at all cost. (Huber 2006, p. 90)
From the analysis above, it is evident that the fact that management did not develop to be an exact science led to many changes in the concepts of management theory. This is mainly based on the role of managers in different types of organizations. Managers tend to approach management from the other schools of management theory rather than a scientific point of view. This is because managers tend to be more concerned with attainment of the set goals and objectives rather than how they were achieved. There are more concerned with maximization of employees to maximize profit.
The corporate world has been growing fast over the past few years. This has led to the increased competition among the market players. The main reason for the increased competition has been the utmost realization that the available resources are scarce and enterprises ought to put their best foot forward in ensuring that they attain competitive advantage. This is because profit maximization is the key goal for every organization. Moreover, attainment of this optimum goal is directly dependent on the market share of any player in the market. This relationship is such that the larger the market share the larger the amount of expected profits.
This must have been the realization that prompted Goizueta to adapt global standardization. Over the years, globalization has reshaped the strategies that enterprises are choosing to implement in the organizations (Waters 2001, p. 12). It has widened the market that enterprises' marketing departments are able to reach out in a specific span of time. Various strategies have risen up due to the existence of globalization. One of the most implemented strategies is using the social networks in order to reach out to the market at large.
International business has been scaling high because businesses are implementing this cost effective method of marketing. Social networking ensures that an organization is able to reach out to their consumers wherever that that they may be located. In addition to this, consumers are in a position to give their feedbacks in relation to the products that they receive from the organization.
Adapting this strategy was beneficial since the company reached out to consumers at an international level. Moreover, it was keeping up with modern trends. This ensured that the company remained relevant in the market. Also, the strategy was cost-effective. Hence, the company was maximizing its profits.
Benefits of the Globalization Strategy
The current strategy that Coca Cola is pursuing is commendable. This is because it incorporates the ideas that had been proposed by Daft and Goizueta. It reduces the risks posed by adapting either of the previous strategies. It creates room for opinions but with an authority at the top. This leaves room for sharing of ideas. As a result this enhances the company’s growth.
The expectations of the management of any organization are of ultimate importance to the enhancement of essential communication between them. This is partly because they must agree on the way forward in regards to the goods found in the market. Therefore, these expectations must be carefully handled to ensure that they are analyzed and responded to as expected. This is will ensure that there exists a smooth working environment irrespective of the competition and hurdles that the two parts of the business may have had in the past.
The current strategy creates room for communication. In order to enhance effective communication, certain communication tools must be implanted into the running of the business. This implies that it is extremely important to ensure that the mode of communication that a business chooses to use is one that fulfills the purpose for which it was sought (Koontz & Weihrich 2006). This is because it forms the basis of whether or not the expected results are achieved. Effective communication can only be achieved if certain communication theories are put into consideration during the implementation process.
There are minimal risks involved in the implementation of the current strategy. There is a minimal chance of losing consumers since all their tastes and preferences may not be incorporated. However, this has been taken care of through the research carried out to determine what products to present in the market based on majority choices.