Enclave tourism is a set of activities, where tourists enclose to an area where they get all their tourist interests. They established along Jumeirah coast in Dubai at first. Emergence of exclusive resorts has led to the growth of enclave tourism which has consequently led to the decline of local tourism (Mclntyre 1993). During the establishment of enclave tourism, infrastructural development that targeted mainly the tourist was the key factor that accelerated its growth and development (Duffy & Smith 2003). Investors looked for deserted places where there was less or no interaction with local residents and improved them for development of resort (Cooper & Hall 2008). The resorts were used to ‘enslave’ the tourists only in the desired area. This translated to the development of another community known as the tourism community, because it was solely filled with tourists who never had any interference from the external world. The local community is kept away from the resorts, because most people in the community could not afford the resorts or even their facilities due to the high prices. In developing countries, the prices of the resorts tend to rise due to the poor living standards in most of them. In this case, the authorities in charge of tourism charge highly to the enclave tourism in order to increase the government revenue (Dieke 2000).
Cooper and Hall (2008), note that there are many factors that should be considered before developing an enclave tourism site. Among the main factors is political stability of the nation in question (Pearce 1989). Political stability of a place determines its nature of governance and tourists obviously go for more politically stable countries. With political stability, there is a high infrastructural development that eventually results in the development of resorts and more attraction features to tourists. The infrastructure allows access for easy transport and communication into the country thus better living conditions while in the country. It also allows tourists to have access to their homelands through the use of facilities such as internet and visa cards hence there is ease in access to services. Political stability in a larger picture will be as a result of good governance and this will be a good place for tourists as they have the confidence with their goods and overall stay in that country.
Peace in a country is another crucial factor that leads growth in the tourism industry. Peace in a country contributes a lot at growth in tourism, because most tourists like to live in a harmonious ground with minimum disturbance. In some countries, peace is highly related to political stability, especially in those countries which experience tribal or international wars. Peace allows tourists to have an assured stay and safety due to high quality security system and military status. Peaceful countries, therefore, receive more tourists than warring counterparts.
Resorts are expensive to build and they require enough funds to construct and maintain (Mclntyre 1993). At the same time, foreign investors may be invited into a country to erect their resorts with the ideas of tourists in mind. Villas and other Gothic structures may attract more tourists from the UK to African sites. The best of these may be erected in the African sites by investors who have sound knowledge on the structures. The best people to construct them are investors from the UK.
It is, therefore, evident that the governance of a country determines its rate of growth in the tourism industry (Sharpley & Telfer 2002). It is a very lucrative sector and many countries receive millions of tourists per year, making it the backbone of their economy. Sustainable tourism has been advocated by many institutions (Mowforth & Munt 2009; Inskeep 1991). Enclave tourism has been recently adopted and has, like any new development, come with its effects in the areas that they are practiced. Some of these impacts will be discussed in this paper.
Social impact of “enclave tourism”
It is important to keep in mind that there is a minimal contact between society and enclave tourists (Reid, Donald, Mair & Wanda 2004). The positive factors of social tourism are regarded to the interaction (however small) between local communities and tourists. These minimal interactions lead to a better understanding between them. Local residents are able to get acquainted of what is happening in other parts of the world. Interested residents acquire knowledge without moving from place to place looking for sources or answers. The tourists, on the other hand, become enlightened of the local communities and their ways of living. They become aware of the surroundings of the local residents and manage to gain cultural and social ways of life, and they are able to compare this with their own ways of life. As they interact, they are able to create friendship amongst themselves making their interests similar (Ratz & Puczko 2002), thus promoting such conditions as globalization. Some of the people who benefit from the knowledge are those working in the resorts as they get the interaction with the tourists during their stay.
Infrastructural growth benefits the society around the resorts (Sharpley & Telfer 2002). Such infrastructural developments include road and electrification. Providing internet connection in the enclave areas leads to the establishment of high quality standards and satisfying tourists` requirements. This has become a major benefit to the community.
There is infiltration of immorality in the areas that enclave tourism is practiced. In most world countries, it is characterized with 4S (Sand, sea, sex and sun) (Telfer & Sharpley 2008). This way, most of the things that people in these areas borrow are immoral and in most cases not permitted by their society.
There are a few economic effects of enclave tourism development in the areas where it is practiced (Williams & Shaw 1998). This type of business requires high investments that very few of the local residents, especially in the third world countries, can afford. Therefore, it is mostly ran and set up by foreign organisations (Reid, Donald Mair & Wanda 2004). A good example of these is the Club Mediterrenee S.A., which operates over 80 resorts along the Caribbean, Asia, and equatorial locations among others. Due to these external investors, there are little chances to the host country to have economic benefits from tourism. Further, there is an inconsistent employment patterns since enclave resorts are only open and running at certain times of the year. This way, it is not easy to keep employees, thus making it hard for them to survive, especially during the low seasons with a few visitors to come to the enclave resorts.
The enclosure has a deeper meaning, since local residents take those who go there as ‘people from another class.’ This is due to the high costs involved and the activities that are held there. They adore tourists and are ready to take up or copy anything that they do during their visits in the resorts. In Africa, for instance, sex is culturally seen as sacred and it should be as confined as possible. It should be left for those involved and there should be no publicity in it. In the enclave resorts, this is not the case and there are many activities that provoke sex on sand under the sun. This has slowly infiltrated into society and has become picked up by the local societies in Africa and increased prostitution and other similar behavior.
Resort investment has led to a high rise in property in areas they are erected. Once a new resort has been put up in an area, the property such as land and other facilities around it hike in price. This is usually due to the high costs of goods and services around that area and a belief that there could be more investors who would be willing to invest around the same place in order to have a centralized location for such activities.
Planning as a mediation tool to mitigate the socio-economic impacts of enclave tourism
Planning for the development of tourism is vital. Poor planning would lead to poor development of the industry or non-growth at all (Reid 2003). It is, therefore, paramount that there is an extensive consultation within the authorities, investors, local residents and other people who would be affected by the development. Checks and balances on the facilities ought to be made to ensure that there would be no moral erosion; there will be relative economic gains and that there would be a general positive improvement on the general status of the residents and society in the area (Hall 1994). The investor must be satisfied that there would be enough room for development in case the need arises, both in terms of space and investment. In case there is new development in the area, it is paramount that the parties involved should all gain and little negative effects should be experienced. Proper planning, therefore, involves all stakeholders and allows for mutual benefits by all the people that are involved in the development process (Reid 2003). The licensing authorities regulate the activities that could harm the society. Also, societies around the facility are given a voice to air their views to reduce negative social impacts that the new facility could impart.
Models used in tourism development
Several models have been developed by different authors to describe the development of tourism, especially in the developing nations. Briguglio, Archer & Wall (1996) and Hall (2008) propose a good model that explains the process of planning in development of tourism in order to improve benefits to the stakeholders. The model was known as Smith’s model of beach resort development. It is divided into 8 distinct stages, which aid in planning and positive developments.
Stage 1: Pre-Tourism Datum- This includes the evaluation of the data available in the area before tourism developments are done. The data covers the economic status of the area and would be later used to determine, through comparison the economic gains that the new development would bring. Prevailing businesses and general status of the society is analyzed.
Stage 2: Second Homes-It involves the evaluation of alternative homes that tourists would get away from the new development. Infrastructure between the places is held as vital and this allows the planners and stakeholders to provide the services or improving them before the facilities can be developed. Roads and communication channels are given the highest priority at this stage.
Stage 3: First Hotel - It is also referred to as a pink hotel. It involves the introduction of the first structure of the intended overall constructions. The first facilities are put in place and tourists can be welcomed in the resort in small numbers. The resources are limited and there is little effect of the facility to the local communities including provision for jobs.
Stage 4 - Resort Established-More structures are put up. For enclave tourism facilities, the structures are specialized and the prices are increased to exceed the capability of the local residents. Golfing strips, skiing grounds and other facilities are availed to the tourists at very high prices.
Stage 5: Business Area Established- The business takes leaps and employs more people to run the increasing facilities. More safety measures are put in place and there are rising numbers of tourists into the resort. At this stage the facilities become more expanse and more expensive. In enclave tourism they are more facilities and there are only a few local residents who can access the resort, apart from workers.
Stage 6: Inland Hotels- More resorts would be developed far away from the initial hotel (pink hotel). A series of such would be developed to signify the diversity in services and features by the hotel business. Apart from the villas and skiing, for instance, more activities such as Mountain View resorts would be developed away from the coastal resorts (Harrison 2001).
Stage 7: Transformation- At this point, the resort would provide all the needs of the customers. The services would target a certain group of people in order to increase their frequency of visiting the resort. The services would include foods, structures etc. New facilities such as horse riding would be developed. Since the charges are high, and include all the costs incurred, tourists are free to do everything that pleases them, thus allowing them all fun and luring them back to the resort.
Stage 8: City Resort- This is the stage where there is fully mature in the business. There are many resorts by now and there is a small city that has been developed to cater for the needs of the customers. A fully sufficient city is at this point mature and provides all goods and services to the visitors. This way, there is very little or no contact with the local societies at all.
These stages in the model can also be used to develop enclave tourist sites effectively (Briguglio, Archer & Wall 1996). For these eight stages to move as desired, it is important that there is thorough consultations and dialogue between the stakeholders. Failure to this, the process of hotel and general tourism development would experience many setbacks and they will have little chances to survive. The state hosting resorts and these developments should be involved at all levels. In most countries, there is a Ministry for Tourism, which ensures that all the tourist centers are well developed and that the host country reaps maximum benefits. There are regulations that allow investors to make their investments, but since those making the investments are foreigners, they are heavily taxed, thus explaining one of the reasons why enclave tourism is expensive. The state, through the ministry ensures that there are laws that consider both the social and economic impacts of the resorts and tourism developments allowing them to develop sustainably using state facilities such as land and sea to attract tourists (Inskeep 1994).
Another model is the core periphery enclave model developed by Britton in 1981. It attempts to explain the social effects of tourism industry on developing countries and role of the industry in economic development. The model refers to the developed nations as ‘the core’ and the developing ones are called ‘the periphery’. Tourism is in the model defined as the flow of tourists from the core to the periphery. The people and companies who invest in periphery come from the core hence they control tourism. The model refers enclaves as the areas within developing countries designated for tourism alone. They are constructed and developed in a manner that bars tourists from getting to know the actual living conditions of the people in the periphery. Tourism is therefore developed as per the taste of the visitors and enclave tourism has little or even no economic benefit to the society around the facility since they are self-sufficient and they are owned by foreigners.
Butlers model views tourism development as a resource. It focuses on the development of a resort and divides it in 6 different stages. These stages are exploration, involvement, development, consolidation, stagnation and decline or rejuvenation. This can be illustrated as shown below.
Exploration is characterized by limited numbers and few facilities. Involvement includes some of the local residents to provide facilities and developing of tourism market. Development stage invites large numbers of tourists and is now controlled by external bodies. At this point, conflicts between locals and tourist emerge. At consolidation stage, tourist is a major revenue source in the country and there is a steady flow of tourists. New facilities are developed and older ones are not desired any more. Stagnation is the highest point the resort can attract and they no longer thrill new tourists. Rejuvenation or decline stage is the point where the industry either restarts from the base as new facilities and services are offered or the resort collapses and receives very few visitors from specific areas.
We can take two illustrations of resorts in different countries to better understand the development of enclave tourism. Cuba attracts over 2 million tourists per year, making tourism the major source of revenue by the government. The high number of tourists is as a result of favorable natural conditions such as beaches and architecture that dates back to the colonial era. In the recent years, there have been a lot of enclave resorts developed around the areas of Havana and Holguin. These attract visitors from Europe and Canada. Their development has been as a result of the increasing peace in the country that was earlier facing many wars and political instability, during the communism era. There have been a lot of recent foreign investments in the country that have led to the ever rising number of tourists every year.
Another good example for the development of enclave resorts is Casa de Campo situated in La Romana in Dominican Republic. This is a world class resort that has an assorted range of activities such as golfing and other family vacation needs. It has a 400berth marina, 1700 private villas among other thrilling features. It is dubbed as the most complete resort in the whole of greater region of Caribbean. It is located along the East coast of Dominican Republic.
The development of these two enclave sites has one main similarity. They are both located along the coast. This explains well the theory of 4S in enclave tourism. The use of natural features such as the ocean is the main tool that enclave tourist developers use to ensure that their investment is worthy. Further, the resorts rarely accommodate local tourists due to their costly services. A difference between the two is the way they developed since the two countries have different histories. Dominican Republic has been peaceful for a very long time as compared to Cuba, thus allowing for the development of enclave tourism in Dominican Republic than in Cuba. Political stability and peace in a country is, therefore, a key factor to the development of tourism.
Enclave tourism is an important aspect of modern tourism in the world today. Sites are well selected with available natural features such as mountains and sea being put in use. There are many impacts that this form of tourism brings to the country, and it is important to note that the nature of enclave tourism makes it unique and have a wide range of impacts. The economic impacts from tourism to the society have been known to be high, but this is not the case in enclave tourism. There is little contact between local residents and tourists. At the same time, despite little contact with local residents, the social impacts still infiltrate into the locals and this can create a new society altogether. The newly acquired behavior in the society is harmful and gives enclave tourism a cause to be regulated by the host authorities, such as the government. This can be effectively done through extensive planning that actively involves all the stakeholders. Proper planning is the main and almost the only way that the government can regulate the effects of this form of tourism to its residents (Hall 2008). It would also ensure that there are enough returns to the government and there is proper utilization of the natural resources available in the country in a profitable and sustainable way. Tourism development is at the moment among the key areas that third world nations along the equator can look up to in order to improve their economic status due to the increasing cases of global warming affecting European and other temperate regions (Telfer & Sharpley 2008; Gossling & Hall 2005). This leads to the migration of the residents from the areas to the warmer and more stable areas around the equator. Enclave tourism is, therefore, a very potent form of tourism and should be improved and well funded and impeccably planned to increase revenues and reduce negative impacts that are usually attributed to tourism.
Finally, there is need to see tourism as a way of life in that it helps those living in areas that experience severe winters and summer. They are able to move to areas with good living conditions and even work from there through internet. Enclave tourism is therefore the way to go at this period when global warming is severe in the temperate regions. People can rent villas and have all the facilities that they need from the comfort of their resorts away from harsh weather conditions. Enclave tourism should therefore be seen as more of a lifestyle and an essential part of life, and not just as a way to have fun and collect revenue.