Abstract

A focus on understanding of emotions and ability to manage them in organizations has caused interest in the role of emotional intelligence. The phenomenon of emotional intelligence is considered to be a topical issue in the field of behavioral investigation due to researchers’ desire to understand its influence on the workplace environment.Emotional intelligence is an important factor that is responsible for psychological well-being, success in life. What is more, it plays a vital role in individual interactions in the workplace. It also helps assimilate, perceive, manage and understand emotions. The purpose of the research is to explore the effects of high and low emotional intelligence in the workplace, its influence on the individual performance, leadership, and productivity of an organization.Emotional intelligence in the workplace is the extensive source of research interest. It is considered to be a predictor of life satisfaction that identifies positive interactions with a family and peers. Low level of emotional intelligence is often associated with misbehavior, whereas high emotional intelligence gives evidence of  leadership, prosperity, and gains.

The research on emotions in the workplace has shown that they may lead to a variety of innovations, accomplishments of individuals, teams and organizations. Employees with high level of emotional intelligence have shown to be good leaders and managers who foster positive attitudes among employees. Results of the study show that a high level of emotional intelligence affects the bottom line in the workplace; and such positive features as leadership, and organization productivity, whereas low level of emotional intelligence has negative influences in terms of the workplace.

Keywords: high emotional intelligence, low emotional intelligence, leadership, organization productivity, individual performance

Introduction/Problem Statement

While speaking about intelligence of a person, one thinks about his or her knowledge and the ability to acquire it. However, intelligence is a multifaceted word which may refer to problem solving, reasoning ability, artistic intelligence, emotional intelligence, and others. Emotional intelligence is regarded to be the ability that affects human beings. It combines the aspects of interpersonal and personal relationships, moods, adaptability, skills of stress management having an effect on the the individual performance, leadership, and productivity of an organization, as well.

Nowadays, there are two approaches of studying emotional intelligence. One of them speaks about information-processing emotional intelligence that was suggested by Mayer, Caruso, and Salovey (1999). They argued the idea that emotional intelligence describes only the abilities. They use the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test to measure it. Another suggestion was made by Goleman (1995) and Bar-On (1997) who argued that there is some degree of skills in emotional intelligence. The Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory was used by researchers to measure emotional intelligence. These approaches are not contradictory, but they suggest different perspectives concerning the emotional intelligence nature.

Emotional intelligence is believed to be an important component of a successful workplace. Individuals with high emotional intelligence build better and more successful relationship with their colleagues and superiors; they are more successful at work and get higher job satisfaction.Emotional intelligence deals with the effectiveness of someone’s response not only to his/her own emotions, but also to the feelings of others. People with high emotional intelligence are able to respond in a proper way to all social situations. A person that is emotionally intelligent has an ability to combine emotions with good reasoning skills in order to maintain a good relationship, show the individual performance and productivity. Emotional intelligence is strongly influenced by the life pains.

Defenders of emotional intelligence claim that it is an essential predictor of all workplace areas performance. They demonstrate that emotional intelligence is one of the key factors which determine work affectivity and leadership. Goleman (1995) speaks about the importance of emotional intelligence effect on leaders and managers as they need high level of emotional intelligence to represent organizations and companies to the public, to interact with a variety of people outside and within the organization. In this way, individual success and performance in the workplace is the function of emotional intelligence. The greatest part of this success depends on the person’s ability to accomplish tasks and motivate. It has been proved that leaders and managers with empathy tend to understand the need of their employees and co-workers and, therefore, provide the support and feedback. 

Dissociations from emotional intelligence faculties are caused by threatening and unbearable experiences. A person may temporarily worsen emotional intelligence and make bad choices, harm others, or be engaged in misbehavior.  Emotional intelligence is a combination of competencies which constitute skills that manage and monitor emotions (Caudron, 1999; Goleman, 1998). D. Goleman provides the  model that has five dimension. He states that each element has its own behavioral attribute set. Self-management is the ability to keep impulses and emotions under control, be honest and responsible for actions, and feel comfortable facing new ideas and approaches. Self-awareness helps make self-assessment, recognize a feeling when it happens. Motivation is considered to be the tendency which guides or facilitates goal attainment. It consists of commitment, drive, and initiative. Social skills assist in the inducing responses which are desirable, be able to listen avidly, inspire others, and work with people for achieving the same goal and objective. Empathy is the ability to understand others being aware of their feelings, concerns, needs, and perspectives (Goleman, 1998).

People who are emotionally intelligent are aware that feelings take an essential place in their lives and they constantly express them. Nevertheless, they express them in an appropriate way, making judgments and differences between self-awareness and self-obsession, empathy and sympathy. Hence, the basis of effective leadership is formed by the key elements of emotional intelligence.

In order to enhance and develop the capabilities of the workforce and to compete in the times of globalization, organizations of the twenty first century have to initiate future strategies of the oriented human resources. It can be argued that the overall success of an organization is caused by individual workforce competencies. Therefore, the concept of emotional intelligence plays an important role in every organization and refers to the ability to evaluate emotions, perceive them and control. Emotional intelligence deals with the influence without manipulation as it is related to learning, perceiving, innovating, acting and prioritizing taking emotions into account, rather than technical analysis and intellect (Ryback, 1998).

Over the past decade, researchers have discovered that effective leaders, productivity of organizations, and individual performance of employees have a positive correlation with emotional intelligence (Bradberry & Greaves, 2003; Singh, 2003). People with high emotional intelligence show a higher level of performance than their colleagues, and those with low emotional intelligence show contrary results (Bradberry & Greaves, 2003).

Nowadays, businesses tend to encourage and develop the skills of emotional intelligence within the workplace (Singh, 2003). Good understanding of emotional intelligence is very important for all levels of leadership as might have organizational implications for retention, recruitment, succession planning etc. Thus, thegoal of this paper is to examine the effects of low and high emotional intelligence in the workplace, including the effect on individual performance, leadership, and productivity of an organization. While low emotional intelligence has many negative effects when it exists in the workplace, High Emotional Intelligence has proven to affect the bottom line in the workplace as well as develop individual performance, leadership, and organization productivity.

Review of Literature

The main purpose of the literature review is to study the already conducted relevant research in the field of emotional intelligence. The review will help understand better and identify widely used definitions and concepts, as well as to review theories and methods which were adopted by researchers. It has become evident that the ability to regulate and recognize emotions plays a vital role in the workplace. The main contributors in the studied field are Taylor, Weis, Arnesen, Nowicki, Duke, Krishnaveni, Deepa, Tumer, Weisinger, Svyantek, Rahim, etc. Such researchers as Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso (2004), Prati, Douglas, Ferris, Ammeter, and Buckley (2003), Goleman, Boyatzis, and Mckee (2002), George (2000), Goleman (1998), and many others have theorized the relevance between emotional intelligence and the capacity to manage stress, lead others, work effectively in teams, develop individual performance, leadership, and productivity of organization.

Human personality is formed with the help of emotional traits. Shand (1914) was the first scientist who suggested the idea that traits of character were organized around emotions. The author also believed that primary emotions are the root character and that emotions are associated with behavior and different activities. Emotional intelligence is a relatively new term in the research literature, but it is claimed to exist since the time of Darwin (Bar-On et al., 2006). The term ‘emotional intelligence’ was first introduced by Salovey and Mayer (1990). According to them, the notion refers to as “the ability to monitor one's own feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one's thinking and actions” (p. 189). It is believed that emotional intelligence involves such psychological processes as verbal and non-verbal analysis, and emotion expression (Roberts, Zeidner & Matthews, 2001).

Emotional intelligence is defined as ability to recognize relationships and emotion meaning, and to solve problems on the basis of these abilities (Mayer et al., 1999, p. 267). Hence, emotional intelligence is a part of the capacity to assimilate feelings related to emotions, to perceive emotions, and to understand the information conveyed in emotions and be able to manage them (Salovey & Mayer, 1990; Taylor, 2009). It is the ability to influence the emotions of others in the process of interaction. This ability takes an important role in leadership and coaching as people tend to respond better to those who treat them with respect and honesty (Taylor, 2009). 

Interest in emotional intelligence has grown in recent years (Weis, Arnesen, 2007). It has been stated that emotional intelligence is a key factor that determines success in life and psychological well-being ;and it is considered to be imperative in order to leverage and understand the human capital capacity in organizations (Kavita, 2007). Motivation is seen as a tool that helps define methods of performing work. It creates loyalty and contributes towards the development of emotional intelligence.  In its turn, emotional intelligence helps consider the consequences of one’s decisions as they affect others either in a negative or a positive way (Wakeman, 2006).

Some researchers provide for a direct link between academic achievements and emotional intelligence. They indicate that emotional intelligence also helps people gain a competitive advantage, to interact with the working environment, and to enhance the individual and team competencies (Krishnaveni & Deepa, 2008). Due to the modern dynamic nature of a job, the factors like work pressures, tough time deadlines, cross-cultural teams, conflicts at home and at work, have led to a highly stressed environment in the workplace. The above mentioned factors have a negative influence on the organization effectiveness, leadership, and well-being of employees. Krishnaveni and Deepa (2008) have stated in the article “Emotional Intelligence - A Soft Tool for Competitive Advantage in Indian Organizations” thatthe individual workforce competencies are key determinants of success in any environment. Nevertheless, it has been sometimes argued that emotional intelligence may be a key factor that determines success as it is an ability to cope with the demands and pressures of an environment effectively. Thus, absence of emotional intelligence is a central element of our life, both at home and at work (Goleman, 1995). The research, conveyed by Cooper (1997) shows that people which have a high level of emotional intelligence are more successful at work; they build stronger relations, are more productive, and have better leadership skillsthan people with low emotional intelligence. The importance of emotional intelligence in daily life has been studied by such researchers as Furnham & Petrides (2003), Fatima (2005), and Ciarochi & Scott (2006). 

In the article “A review and Critique of Emotional Intelligence Measures” (2005) Jeffrey M. Conte studied the various methods of emotional intelligence assessments and came across some problems. First of all, each assessment method defines emotional intelligence in a different way. Another problem is that different measurement techniques are used in these methods. Among them there are the ability-based assessment, self-report, informant approach, and others. There were a lot of debates concerning the measurement method of emotional intelligence. Hence, one suggested a self-report method as it was less time consuming than test performance (Brackett, Rivers, Shiffman, Lerner, & Salovey, 2006). A measure of self-report are known to be problematic due to its nature. Therewfore, people who provide the report can give responses which are socially desirable or they just may not know how they may react in different situations and how well they perform tasks based on emotions. Thus, the self-report method is rarely used to measure emotional intelligence.   

Singh (2007) is convinced that pace change is increasing and constantly developing employment world is making greater demands on emotional and physical resources. Emotional intelligence is an important factor for the effective management as the greatest part of organization concern involves people who perform different roles. It has been stated that the personal and emotional competencies are necessary components in identifying and measuring, in case we want to predict workplace performance that leads to human capital growth, effectiveness, and productivity. The research suggests the idea that emotional intelligence is closely related to individual competencies of people, and personal competency variables including system success, people success, and self success. Emotional intelligence is considered to be the most essential predictor of leadership performance (Goleman, 1998; McKee, 2005). 

It has been researched that the attitude to work can be influenced by the ability to perceive and deal with own emotions (Brackett & Mayer, 2003). Employees may take roles in the workplace, as well as make friends, experience frustrations and success, present themselves differently depending on the person they deal with. It means that there is no difference between private and public worlds of emotions (Bolton 2005, p. 2-3). Dulewicz, Higgs, and Slaski (2003) examined the relationship with work life quality and morale. The results showed that emotional intelligence of managers was positively correlated with morale and the quality of work life. Goleman (1995) speaks about the fact that emotional intelligence is more important than IQ and technical skills in terms of success in all level jobs. The relationships between emotional intelligence of employees and their managers have been examined by Timothy Tumer (2006). He found that emotional intelligence of employees was associated with job performance and satisfaction. Moreover, emotional intelligence of the managers had more positive correlation with employee job satisfaction that showed low emotional intelligence.  It has been proved that emotional intelligence is closely related to work success and plays an important role in a certain aspects of team performance and effective leadership in a team.He makes an emphasis on the studies which explore the relationship between emotional intelligence and stress, that is experienced at work, and states that the findings are scanty.

Emotional intelligence of employees is influenced by the attitude and behavior which is held within the workplace and the organization, in general. In “The Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Work Attitudes, Behavior and Outcomes: An Examination among Senior Managers” Carmeli (2003) made an investigation of the relationship of emotional intelligence with work behavior, attitudes, and outcomes. Emotional intelligence was analysed with the help of a self-report measure which was developed by Schutte et al. (1998).Results of the hierarchical regression revealed the fact that managers who are emotionally intelligent tend to develop high commitment towards their careers and organizations where they work.Suliman and Al-Shaikh (2007) are convinced that those employees who have higher emotional intelligence levels tended to report lower intra-individual conflict levels. It was concluded that emotional intelligence of employees may be influenced by job satisfaction, stress, and even customers’ satisfaction. The emotional intelligence relationship with perceived job stress has been tested by Oginska-Bulik (2005). The result of testing 330 professionals of human service showed a negative relationship between emotional intelligence and stress that is perceived in the workplace. Almost the same result of negative correlation between emotional intelligence and stress at work was presented by Dulewicz & Higgs (2003).

A number of researchers tried to find a link between emotional intelligence and leadership. Many of them confused the emotional intelligence model by adding some factors to it, for example, they added traits of personality which were almost irrelevant to the emotional intelligence (Goleman, 2001; Dulewicz & Higgs, 2003).  It has been suggested that emotional intelligence plays a very important role in the effective leadership (Sosik & Megerian, 1999; Caruso, Mayer & Salovey, 2002). It can enhance the ability of a leader to recognize and solve problems. George (2000) proposes the idea that leaders with a high level of emotional intelligence easily recognize emotions and determine if they are related to work or obstacles. Such leaders can also utilize their emotions in the process of decision making. Nevertheless, it has been argued (Caruso et al., 2002) that they really can use emotions in order to guide the process of decision making, to motivate and encourage employees, as they take into an account multiple point of view.  

In “Self-awareness at Work How Reacting to Emotional Triggers Affects Professional Performance and your Level of Emotional Intelligence”, Joni Rose (2006) writes about the employers’ desire to look for the potential of leadership which includes a high level of emotional intelligence. The author states that emotional intelligence consists of such competencies as relationship management, self management, self-awareness, and social awareness. The study by Douglas & Caesar (2004) examines the relationship between performance and conscientiousness and concludes that there exist the analyses of hierarchical moderated regression. This analyses support the idea that the relationship between conscientiousness and performance in the workplace is positive only for people with high level of emotional intelligence.  Thus, people with low level of emotional intelligence are characterized by conscientiousness increases associated with performance decrease.

Researches have shown that people who have a low level of emotional intelligence experience a lot of stressful situations, have lower adaptation, and are often affected by disappointment, depression, and other negative feelings. On the contrary, people who have a high level of emotional intelligence are apt to face less negative emotions and feeling. They have experience in creating and maintaining the stable relationships. Thus, emotional intelligence is viewed as a set of life events and consequents, which help people understand and predict different aspects of daily life (Chiva & Alegre, 2008, p. 680-701). Siarouchi and Mayer (2006) in the article “Emotional Intelligence in Everyday Life” study emotional intelligence with the aim to show the relationship between psychological adaptation and stress. According to the research, psychological adaptations are closely linked to disappointment, depression, and ideas of suicide. The researchers conclude individuals with high emotional intelligence enjoy a high level of support from society which keeps them away from depression and suicide ideas. It has been studied that leaders with a high level of emotional intelligence are 20 per cent more productive than those with low level of emotional intelligence (Bradberry & Greaves, 2003).

It has been widely believed that in the modern business world emotional intelligence plays an important role in job and life success. Studies show that a new employee is often subdued to sympathy, courage, happiness, and emotional self-consciousness. The emotional intelligence test has shown that the majority of successful new employees has relatively high scores in happiness, courage, and sympathy components (Khaef Elahi, Dostar, 2003).

Emotional intelligence makes a significant influence on the performance of a leader (Cherniss & Goleman, 2001). Thus, emotionally intelligent leaders are able to have much greater effect on an organization than those who have low emotional intelligence (Cherniss, 2003). Thi Lam and Kirby (2002) follow the idea that emotional intelligence increases performance and individual productivity of employees. It has a theoretical significance for the analysis of a routine work of employees as organizations seek to achieve goals and the majority of tasks require the ability to manage emotions.

Research Methodology

Research is a process which defines problems that formulate suggested solutions hypothesis with the help of summarizing, collecting, organizing and evaluating different data with the aim to reach on solutions with careful testing. Hence, it refers to knowledge search, whereas methodology is considered to be a procedure or set of procedures that are used to find answers to problems.  

Secondary Data Analysis

Secondary data is used to analyze the studies which have been made by others (Boslaugh, 2007, p. ix). Secondary data analysis “can include any data that are examined to answer a research question other than the question(s) for which the data were initially collected” (Vartanian, 2010, p. 3). Implementing secondary data analysis, the researcher analyzes data collected by another researcher to address posing questions.

Some things should be done before using secondary data for analysis. The researcher who uses the data is not familiar with them as he did not collect them. Thus, the researcher must thoroughly review the data that he uses. 

Palmer, Walls, Burgess, and Stough (2001) lead a self-report measure of emotional intelligence to 43 managers with the aim to evaluate the connection between leadership and emotional intelligence and effective leadership. In “Emotional Intelligence” the researchers conclude about their findings concerning significant relations between leadership, individual performance, and emotional intelligence (Palmer et al., 2001).   

Among the strengths of secondary data analysis is the ability to use search engines and web-based materials; it uses already existing information, and captures comprehensive information.    

Correlational Analysis

Correlational analysis may be defined as statistical correlation use in order to evaluate the variable strength of the relations. This kind of analysis may be performed when there are enough data for the variable under question. Thus, the secondary data method and correlation analysis are very helpful for the current research.

As a result, the data may be plugged into a Karl Pearson formula which was called Karl Pearson’s coefficient of correlation. Nowadays, the majority of calculations is performed with the software tool. The correlational research method is used to investigate two variables which are measured in interval, ration, or ordinal scales in order to find the relationship between them. As correlation is able to demonstrate the presence or absence of a relationship, it appears to be useful for indicating research areas. One of the main benefits of correlation analysis is that it gives the possibility to repeat  data collection verifying the findings.

Correlation provides estimation concerning the association degree between variables, but it does not make any assumptions as to the dependency of variables on the others. SPSS analysis is widely used in correlation analysis. SPSS software enables analysis and statistical calculations. So, we have created data for analysis, then selected it, and correlated it with the help of Bivariate opinion. The way of data layout in SPPS depends upon the kind of data that should be analyzed. However, there are some principals which are considered to be the basic ones in all situations. SPSS expects one to use a row for each case. Categorical variables are usually represented by numbers and the name of a viable is limited in length. In SPSS, each subject should have a separate row. 

In case when two variables are correlated, it is possible to make predictions for them. Nevertheless, it is necessary to note that it does not mean causality as at this point it is impossible to define the relationship between the variables. Thus, evidence of correlation is important due to the fact that it is helpful in identifying potential behavior causes. The purpose of correlational analysis is to determine the strengths and directions of emotional intelligence, and to measure the extent to which variable vary together.

Survey

Qualitative data collection was used by creating a survey. A survey is the way of gathering information about certain needs, opinions, or characteristics (Tanur, 1982). Surveys are characterized in the following way: the collected information is gathered by asking predefined and structured questions. The answers are the analyzed data; the purpose of a survey is to make quantitative descriptions of some aspects. Hence, survey research is considered to be a quantitative method that requires standardized information about the subject which is being researched; information is collected in the way of findings generalization (Pinsonneault & Kraemer, 1992).

As survey is a descriptive method, it is very helpful in the process of collecting data. IT can be done online, face-to-face, via telephone or other means of communication. A comprehensive online survey was conducted to gather data for the research. Respondents were asked to answer the questions related to emotional intelligence (What is emotional intelligence? Have individuals been trained it? Are the surveyed individuals good listeners? What are the communication skills of their co-workers? Should the co-workers learn something about emotional intelligence? Do they hire employees with low level of emotional intelligence? What kind of employees is given preference to?)

The conducted survey has shown that emotional intelligence is considered to be a key characteristic for career promotion. According to the survey, one third of the managers admitted that they place an emphasis on emotional intelligence when they hire new employees. More than a half of surveyed managers claimed that they value emotional intelligence rather than IQ. Therefore, the employess with low level of emotional intelligence is not welcomed and such individuals are rarely hired and it is very difficult for them to get promoted. 

Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue)

K. V. Petrides developed the TEIQue as a scientific instrument that can be used to measure emotional intelligence (Petrides, 2001). It consists of 15 facets based on content analysis of the literature on emotional intelligence. It includes emotion expression, impulsiveness, self-motivation, emotion appraisal, emotion regulation, emotion expression, social competence, stress management, trait optimism, etc. (Petrides & Furnham, 2001).

We have chosen the TEIQue with the aim to measure trait emotional intelligence of leaders and managers. The test consists of 30 questions which provide scores on such factors a self-control, well-being, emotionality, and sociability with responses which range from 1 to 5 and scores from 33 to 165. Higher scores show higher levels of emotional intelligence. A high score of well-being shows the overall well-being sense. People with high scores are satisfied with their life and work. Low scores indicate poor self-esteem and dissatisfaction with life. The factor of self-control speaks about one’s degree of control over desires. High score of self-esteem shows an ability to regulate and manage external pressures. Individuals who have low scores cannot manage stress and often display impulsive behavior. High emotionality score indicates a variety of skills which are emotion-related (expressing and perceiving emotions, recognizing internal emotions, etc.) People with low scores of emotionality are not able to recognize their own feelings. The factor of sociability puts an emphasis on the social relationships and influences. Individuals with a high sociability score are considered to be attentive listeners and good communicators. Low score shows the ineffectiveness in social interaction (Petrides, 2001).

Thus, the data collected from a survey, secondary data analysis, and Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire show the level of emotional intelligence of employees and their leaders. 100 people were engaged in the above mentioned methods of emotional intelligence measurement. It has been concluded that the majority are leaders and only a small part of employees are aware of the effect of high emotional intelligence on leadership, individual performance, and productivity of the organization. They try to control emotions and do the best to maintain the same level. Those, who were characterized as the representatives of low emotional intelligence, knew little about emotion management and emotional intelligence in general.    

Findings

Being defined as a skill or ability for identification, assessment, and control of emotions, the concept of emotional intelligence is widely used in the managerial sphere mostly due to its ability to enhance organization’s human potential. Emotional intelligence is considered to be a modern tool of effective management that gave a person opportunity to manage a large number of people. Moreover, competencies of emotional and personal character are key factors. They are closely related to performance in the workplace environment, productivity, and development of an organization’s human capital. Partly, emotional intelligence is a kind of a response to the problems businesses experience in the modern world. The solution to the problem may be found or solved with the help of a leader who has good technical knowledge, and is socially and emotionally skilled. Some psychologists even believe that emotional intelligence is twice as important as analytical and technical skills.  

The findings of our research suggest that employees who have the best outcomes in business are characterized by high scores of emotional intelligence test. Certain personality characteristic manifestation includes privateness, low vigilance, high openness. What is more, such people possess higher ability to control their emotions. It has been stated that the ability measure of emotional intelligence is able to forecast effective leadership.

The research shows that there is a positive relation between employee performance and emotional intelligencewhere age is the factor that influences the scores of emotional intelligence. Emotionally intelligent workplace can be made with the help of self awareness of employees, management tools, organizational strategies, development programs, and leadership skills.  

The findings on emotional intelligence support the idea that emotions are functional when we speak about their accurate interpreting, integration into thinking and behavior, and effective management. According to the theory of emotional intelligence, the psychological, cognitive, and behavioral changes are adaptive and accompany emotional responses. Emotions also play an important role in society as they convey information about the thoughts, intentions, and behavior of others. 

Emotional intelligence in the workplace facilitates the atmosphere in which individuals show an equal amount of concern for the work duties. Self-aware people are able to examine and analyze their behavior, thoughts, and motives in order to see how their co-workers will be affected. They do not only complete assignments and projects, they seek to assist in the group achievements and task success. Employees with high level of emotional intelligence experience a lowoccupational stress level and do not suffer much from negative health consequences. Hence, emotional intelligence is a vital factor in preventing employees from negative health outcomes (Oginska-Bulik, 2005). Employees who have a high level of emotional intelligence are able to detect crucial social networks. They are attentive and have an ability to listen to others, understand different worldviews and accept all differences of a group. Moreover, they are ready to deal with issues any time, seek mutual understanding, and stay receptive to both bad and good news.

Emotional intelligence is able to improve the social effectiveness of an individual. As a rule, higher emotional intelligence results in better social relations. The high emotional intelligence individual is likely to require less cognitive effort to solve emotional problems. Such person usually tries to be higher in social and verbal intelligence, more agreeable and open than others. The high emotional intelligence person usually takes positions where he/she is engaged in such social interactions as counseling, teaching, administrative task performance, and others. 

People, who have a high level of emotional intelligence, try to avoid getting involved in problem behaviors, usually avoid self-destructive and negative behaviors. The high emotional intelligence individual is characterized by positive social interactions, ability to describe aims, motivational goals, and missions.    

High level of emotional intelligence is not only an individual benefit. It brings a variety of perquisite for the workplace. Teams with high emotional intelligence work much better together, support each other, and are sensitive to the needs and emotions of others. Being motivated and confident in their decisions, such teams show high performance and add to the productivity of the organization. Managers with high emotional intelligence are good and qualified leaders.

Low level of emotional intelligence can cause a lot of negative emotions and outcomes including anxiety, fear, anger, and hostility which often lead to energy waste, apathy, and absenteeism. Such emotions usually block the ability to cooperate in the workplace. The lower level of emotional intelligence in the workplace has a variety of negative effects. Employees, who have a lack of self-control of thoughts and self-awareness, and low level of emotional intelligence are usually counterproductive to the company goals they are hired by. The aim of business is to provide customer service. However, when the company has to deal with a number of employees who are emotionally immature, its focus shifts from production to correlation.

Low emotional intelligence can be exhibited in the following ways: 

  1. Low level of emotional intelligence is characterized by poor control of impulse that is the person has no ability to decide, think, and stop. Thus, a person who cannot react adequately has poor impulse control.
  2.  Low level of emotional intelligence results in the inability to manage stressful situations. Employees’ inability to react in a productive and mature way can lead to great organization damages. 

Low emotional intelligence adds to irrational thinking and poor emotional understanding. Emotions can be controlled only in case they are understood and accepted. When emotions are uncontrolled, employees cannot view a situation accurately. Low levels of emotional intelligence are also conducive to poor understanding of emotions and irrational thinking. It is very hard to control the emotions, unless they are accepted and understood. In this case, employees cannot view a situation accurately.

Cognitive Behavioral Coaching has been widely used in businesses to correct low emotional intelligence effects in the workplace. Thus, emotional intelligence has a strong influence on the performance and leadership of employees in the workplace. Emotionally stable people have an ability to express their feelings and empathize with others, they have good social skills which help perform well.

It has been found that emotional intelligence has benefits far beyond the leadership and managerial sphere. It is also a useful element for positions which require high interpersonal effectiveness, for example, customer service. Assessment of emotional intelligence is an excellent technique which may be used to make a difference between candidates in the recruitment process. It is considered to be a time and cost saving process. Popularity of emotional intelligence testing results from the fact that, unlike relatively fixed traditional personality and intelligence forms, it can be learnt. Thus, training programs can teach employees to enhance and use the skills of emotional intelligence, and, at the same time, increase their leadership skills, organization productivity, and individual success.

Leaders should develop their emotional intelligence because of the following reasons:

  1. Effective communication. It isa characteristic of anindividual with high level of emotional intelligence which gives opportunity to convey directions in a clear way and know what to say to encourage and motivate others. Thus, communication skills may be a key factor for a leader in whether the team or employees listen to him/her or not. 
  2. Self-awareness. Emotionally intelligent leaders are self-aware and can recognize, understand, and manage emotions. This skill is considered to be inevitable for every leader as it helps realize and understand their strong and weak sides. In order to handle problems and their possible complications, good leaders should be able to recognize and perceive emotions, in case they arise as a response to a situation or action.
  3. Social awareness. Leaders with high level of emotional intelligence are able to catch what is going on in the workplace environment. It is important for leaders to sympathize with others in order to motivate and encourage the team for the future success.
  4. Emotional Management. This skill enables leaders be aware of feeling of the employees. It is also necessary to learn to manage those emotions in order to regulate the situation and keep it under control. It is necessary for people who take managerial posts to be able to depress their emotions, not to take hasty decisions in order to be respected by others. 
  5. Resolution of a conflict. There is always a risk of conflicts and disputes in the workplace which may have a negative influence on organization productivity. Hence, a leader with high level of emotional intelligence should be ready to handle any conflict and be able to provide a solution. This skill helps leader develop effective workplace (Fletcher, 2012). 

It should be emphasized that leadership is not an inherent part of being in an authority position. A person that is in tune with personal emotions is more likely to be sympathizing with emotions of other people. Supervisors often utilize a management strategy of emotional intelligence to take time and to listen to their employees and then understand their actions. The majority employees respond favourably to leaders and managers who treat them with respect. James A. Belasco and Ralph Stayer (1993) provided the idea that a good leader must implement the following responsibilities: create conditions in which individuals can acquire new skills, develop competence and capability, transfer ownership for employees’ work, and create the environment for ownership transfer. These principals fulfill company and personal goals only due to emotional intelligence.

In the study, Meisler surveyed 809 employees and managers in different organizations. He examined emotional intelligence effects on a various aspects of organizational politics, on the productivity of employees, their attitude to work, formal and informal behavior, skills of leadership, feelings of justice, and others. The results of his stuffy show that employees with high emotional intelligence recognized organizational justice higher than others; they were more satisfied with their jobs and, thus, more committed to the organizations they worked for. The researcher also states that emotional intelligence effects are not limited to the employee’s attitude to work. It may influence different aspects of organizational politics. Emotionally intelligent employees recognized the organizational politics as less severe than others. In the same way, employees with a higher level of emotional intelligence showed better political skills.

Conclusions

The study was designed to understand the effects of high and low emotional intelligence in the workplace. To put it briefly, emotional intelligence is the art of understanding that emotions are involved in everything and having the skill to deal with them intelligently. The reason for this is the ability to perceive, control, and evaluate people’s emotions. Understanding emotional intelligence in the workplace is said to improve organizational effectiveness and is a multi-level model derived from both individual and group contributions.

Studies have shown that emotional intelligence can significantly influence various aspects of everyday life. Palmer, Donaldson, and Stough (2002) stated that high emotional intelligence was a predictor of life satisfaction. Employees with higher levels of emotional intelligence tend to form strong bonds between their colleagues. Such people are also more successful in their workplace due to the ability to be a good self-manager, effectively bet the output of their work, and complete projects and assignments accordingly. Positive relationships at work result in overall project success and higher job satisfaction. Thus, emotional intelligence may be defined as an inevitable skill of any company or organization that want to create productive and efficient workplace environment. Increasing interest in emotional intelligence makes it an important skill which is as important as academic qualifications.  

Emotional intelligence is considered to be an essential leadership catalyst. It helps leaders articulate objectives and goals of a team, instill enthusiasm, establish trust, cooperation and identity, and encourage flexibility, as well. Development of these abilities would necessitate training, modeling, and rewarding desired behaviors; and it would create a supportive culture and favorable climate within organization leading to high individual performance of employees, good leadership, and organizational productivity.

Emotional intelligence skills lead to healthier, happier, and more successful careers and personal lives. Forming the habit of controlling and managing the own emotions before acting is the remarkable skill that should be acquired by all members of organization, especially those who take leading positions. It helps solve problems, increase productivity, acquire leadership skills, and reduces stress. Individuals who are emotionally intelligent are well-balanced and inspire peaceful work environments. It has been stated that a leader has to be emotionally intelligent in order to accomplish the goals of a company or organization. Low emotional intelligence diverts time and energy of managers to dealing with emotion-based conflicts among members of a team. 

Emotional intelligence is used as a business resource in order to improve individual performance and organization productivity. Among the benefits which are associated with emotional intelligence are better recruiting, increased individual productivity, and more effective leadership. It has been also concluded that the skills of emotional intelligence can be developed, and the individuals who adapt their behavior to the preferences of others take the advantage in business and life.

A lot of organizations realize the immense effect of emotional intelligence and negative outcomes of low level of emotional intelligence. Therefore, they choose emotional intelligence as a framework with the aim to achieve goals. It has been stated that if a leader uses comprehensive set of skills, he/she creates much better workplace environment bringing benefits to both employees and organization. In such atmosphere employees are happy, satisfied and do their best to accomplish objectives of the company by increasing individual performance.

In the research, there is provided a relation between emotional intelligence, workplace effectiveness, individual performance, leadership, and organization productivity. Thus, one can make the conclusion that all these factors are closely related to each other and are positive only in case of high emotional intelligence, whereas low level brings only negative results. However, due to the fact that the skills emotional intelligence may be acquired, it is possible to change the situation within the organization where employees and leaders are characterized by low level of emotional intelligence.  

Recommendations

The research results make significant contributions to the study of emotional intelligence in a workplace, but still a number of important questions remain unanswered. It is needed to state the emotional intelligence relation to work performance and define its relations to interpersonal effectiveness in the workplace. It is important to determine whether it is relevant to such management aspects as stressful job management of inspiring enthusiasm. One should find out if the same results could be received from different occupational settings.

The development of performance and ability based test of emotional intelligence is important as it might be a substantial contribution to the study in the field of emotional intelligence. Employees face a variety of emotional situations, so it would be of great importance to understand the mechanisms of emotional intelligence skills which may be used to deal with different situations.  

Results highlight that we should also study the impact of the competencies of emotional intelligence on different kinds of professional troubles including teamwork, preservation, clash with management, etc. It is needed to carry out a research in the area of emotional intelligence taking into an account the interactions between members of organization.

Thus, organizations should pay more attention towards employees' needs concerning Emotional Intelligence and hire the appropriate employees due to the fact that they can balance their emotions, have a better understanding of situations and are able to perform well in any possible situation. The level of emotional intelligence should be checked from time to time to provide good feedback and get better performance. As emotional intelligence can be learned at any age and any time, organizations should care about their employee trainings and to improve it. Employees with low level of emotional intelligence should be advised to work on the improvement which can lead to better understanding of emotions and squiring the ability to manage them. These skills are very helpful in any workplace which lead to successful leadership, increase individual performance and organizational productivity.

Nowadays, in the competitive business world, emotional intelligence has a huge potential to become a key factor in selecting leaders for any organization. Lack of personal flexibility, interpersonal sensitivity, and emotional resilience has an immense capacity to ruin any career prospects of a highly experienced, intelligent, and qualified professional. Thus, individuals should be trained to manage their emotions in order not only to be successful at work, but also in private life. 

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