This paper presents a report on the means to be employed to tackle the problem of pollution in Phoenix, AZ. This urban centre has experienced rapid growth in human population. By such, human activities have also immensely increased due to high intensity of activities in this city. There is increased pressure on infrastructural facilities, and on the natural resources. Another problem associated with the growth of the city is the expansion to the outskirts as the city dwellers seek land for their activities. The lands are for a wide array of uses ranging from commercial, residential, and industrial uses. The effect of this is the invasion of wet lands, causing of biological disturbances in the habitats, and water and air pollution.

Increased human activities have also heightened the pollution of the environment. Use of cars, and machineries from industries cause substantial pollution through emission of harmful gases, like oxides and other particles which when inhaled lead to lung infections in humans. Plant life cannot also be sustained under such environmental pollution area. Life is thereby at stake in such a city. The phoenix City Council is therefore worried of the following matters and seeks for their resolution. They are; deterioration in infrastructure, increasing traffic congestion, declining air and water quality and the loss of open space.

Methodology

In this report, information that is used for making recommendations has been obtained from secondary sources. Literature review was done so that all the information, which is known; on the topic of city planning in urban areas was considered. This, analyzed with knowledge learnt on pollution, was then used to write the contents of the report. Recommendations are hence given based on the findings that were considered given their suitability in regards to the environment and the costs associated with them.

Conclusion

As cities grow, there is a tendency of causing increased environmental pollution. Growth and development of urban areas is encouraged, but it should be regulated to ensure harmony and consistency in land use for sustainable human settlement. This would lead to a better environment that is favorable for business and human habitation. Phoenix City Council is thereby well aware of the above fact and hence the need to have the recommendations for appropriate action to remedy the situation and have a well planned city.

Recommendations

The following are the points of action, which would serve to rectify the deteriorating environmental conditions in the city. The selection has been based on their effectiveness to be practical and acceptable amongst the populace and the costs associated with having such a facility or program. The aim is however to attain an environmentally and economically sound city. Decision making on environmental issues necessitates the maintenance of a fine balance between the effectiveness of measures and the public reaction towards them. This means that whatever the measures are, care must be taken to ensure that the public is aware of them and that they accept them to some reasonable levels. This would serve to improve the public compliance to the measures. The recommendations are provided below.

Introduction of pollution control legislation. Laws should be formulated that ban activities which adversely pollute the environment. Curtail human activities be curtailed to levels that conform to environmental conservation. Dumping of non-biodegradable materials be controlled and where necessary be recycled (Blackman, 2008). This will cost $ 4.3 million. Establishing roads would also help to reduce congestion on the roads. With congestion, pollution is higher given the persistent revving of vehicle engines at a particular location thereby subjecting the place to such emissions from the engines. The cost of this is at $ 4.7 million.

Establishment of green spaces or urban forestry would too help limit the effects of pollution. Open spaces play an important role within the urban areas. They allow free circulation of air thereby a refreshing atmosphere (Chris, 2006). Urban forestry also produces fresh oxygen through the process of photosynthesis. They take in carbon dioxide, and give out oxygen to the urban area. The trees can contain strong winds and dust. Their role therefore is of huge environmental good besides the improved aesthetics and conservation of soil erosion to the urban lands. Its cost is $ 4.2 million. The last recommendation is the promotion of fuel-efficient cars. The more fuel is consumed, the more the harmful gases are emitted from the car engines. Where plans are made to have cars that consume less fuel, much less pollution would be made. Hence controlling environmental pollution that would have been caused by cars that consume much fuel. The cost of this is $ 3.3 million. The total cost of these measures is $ 16.5, which is less than the amount allocated by the council for environmental conservation. Therefore they are economical besides being reasonably environmental friendly and generally acceptable by the public.

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