Global Warming Climate Change

I have chosen a topic on global warming because it is an issue that concerns the entire environment. The whole planet is affected by climatic changes due to global warming.

Global warming is the rising of earth’s average temperature. It is unequivocal that it is caused by an increased concentration of greenhouse gases produced by the human activity. The climate model projection estimates that, during the 21st century, the global average surface temperature is likely to increase a further 1.1 to 2.9 0 C for the lowest greenhouse gases emissions and 2.4 to 6.4 0C for the highest emission of greenhouse gases (Christianson, 1999). These ranges are estimated by the use of models; the models have a varied sensitivity to concentration of gases in greenhouses.

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change main objective is to prevent human induced climate change (Lovejoy, & Lee, 2005). Most countries are parties to this convention, and they have adopted policies meant to reduce greenhouse gases emissions.

As a result of increased global temperature, the sea level will rise and this will change the pattern and amount of precipitation. This will probably cause the expansion of subtropical deserts. Other likely effects of global warming include extreme events of weather such as drought and heavy rainfall. Shifting temperature regimes will cause species extinction and changes in the crop yields. These related changes will vary from region to region. If global average temperatures rise by up to 40C above preindustrial levels, the human adaptation will be challenged in many parts of the world; similarly, the limits of the natural systems will also be challenged (Lovejoy, & Lee, 2005). This will result in disruption of the ecosystem.

Global warming could also adversely affect food production and food security. Regions such as Africa and South Asia, have already suffered chronic food shortages, are highly vulnerable to global warming and this could imperil poor people.

Food security is the availability and accessibility of food. A country or a household is said to be food-secure when its occupants or population do not live in hunger or are not starved. Millions of people worldwide are chronically hungry and lack food security intermittently.

This is due to varying degrees of poverty. Worldwide, millions of children die of hunger yearly.

The number of malnourished people in the world has remained stubbornly high. Over 60% of this population lives Asia and a significant number in Africa (Health and Nutrition: It's All About the Food). In countries like the United States, approximately 17 million children and one out of six people are food insecure.

The United States is one of the largest food producers in the world; it has implemented a food stamp program for those who lack the income to buy food as a way to tackle food insecurity (Abbasi, 2006). Countries which succeed in dealing with food insecurity are characterized by a rapid economic growth, specifically in the agricultural sector. Agricultural and population issues have to be addressed to achieve food security.

Agricultural productivity can be increased by improving human capital, by education, and by improved health care, by access to finance and property rights, by  improving agricultural science and technology as current yields cannot sustain the rising population, governance and democracy, conflict prevention and resolution mechanisms, and transparency and accountability in a public institution.

The United Nations Millennium development goals are initiatives aimed at improving the livelihood of the world’s populations. One of its main aims is to achieve food security in the world, and this depends on agriculture. It calls for halving of the world’s hunger and poverty by 2015 (Health and Nutrition: It's All About the Food).

Advances in biotechnology and bioengineering have markedly improved genetically engineered crops. The area on which genetically engineered crops are planted in developing countries is close to the area planted in an industrialized nation. Brazil has the highest increase in biotech crop area worldwide. Advanced biotechnology has led to the development of perennial rice and this could drastically reduce the risk of soil erosion on upland farmers.

Improved mechanical engineering has boosted farming and productivity by reducing labor intensity and improving value addition on agricultural produce.

Malnourishment leads to poor health making it impossible for individuals to provide it for their families. Malnourishment decreases the capacity of adults to work and give birth to strong or healthy children (Health and Nutrition: It's All About the Food!). This erodes the ability of the children to learn, socialize, and lead productive and healthy life. This will undermine a country’s economic development potential for generations.

In order to meet our bodies regular nutritional requirements, we need to consider what our bodies need at the different life stages. A nutritious diet should, therefore, be consumed. Because of the rapid growth and development of infants, breast milk provides a baby with the essential quantities of nutrients. In addition, it also provides energy and fluids required by the baby up to six months since it contains immunological and protective factors that help the baby to develop. Fruits and vegetables are introduced after the cereals (Health and Nutrition: It's All About the Food!). These are essential for vitamins and minerals. Red and white meat is introduced last together with eggs. Salts and sugar, as well as cow milk, should be avoided. Exposure to sunlight is necessary for vitamin D.

In their teens, children need plenty of kilojoules and nutrients. They are obtained from food that gives nutrients and energy such as fruits, legumes, nuts, meat, bread and cereals, wholegrain and dairy products for calcium intake.

The diet for a young adult should be conducive for the proper health. They should keep physically active, limit alcohol intake, reduce fats and salt and include foods rich in iron and calcium.

Pregnant women should concentrate on their nutrient intake rather than kilojoules intake.

As a result of the hormone related changes in postmenopausal women, they experience thinning of the bone. They should eat foods rich in calcium – such as milk. Healthy food sources include chickpeas, flax seeds, soy products (tofu, soymilk), lentils, cracked wheat and barley (Health and Nutrition: It's All About the Food!).

Countless people eat less as they grow older. Therefore, it is hard to ensure that your diet has sufficient nutrients needed by the body. Eat foods with a lot of nutrients rather than energy giving foods including eggs, lean meats, fruit and vegetables, fish, liver, nuts and seeds, legumes, low fat dairy foods, wholegrain breads and cereals (Health and Nutrition: It's All About the Food!). A varied diet with plenty of water is recommended for everyone regardless of age.

In every society, women struggle against gender norms that limit them opportunities for empowerment. Women empowerment is a vast resource for social change in the fight against poverty. 70 % of the population that lives in poverty worldwide is women (Woman and Empowerment – Scribd). For them, poverty means voices silenced opportunities curtailed, and rights denied and not just scarcity and want.

It is essential to identify the core elements in women empowerment. This is done by guiding the participant towards a definition of an empowered woman. These elements are: a notion of individual worth and dignity, integrity and freedom from forces over a woman’s body, influence and control over public and household resources and appreciation of the values of collective efforts and solidarity among women (Woman and Empowerment – Scribd). The women empowerment worldwide has been focused on innovations in education. This is instrumental in solving human development problems.

Access to high quality education for girls and women can be achieved by identifying obstacles that prevent access to education. This varies in different communities. Communities should also change their attitudes and the assumptions that prevent an academic excellence for girlsAnother focus on women empowerment is violence. It can be any physical, sexual or psychological harmful practices based on gender. Extremely poor women living in the rural areas can be helped by the economic empowerment. This can be achieved through education on economics and financial management. Women can achieve financial independence by pooling their resources together through savings groups. Saving groups are ideal forums for women to address critical issues in their lives. They gain political and social skills which provide exceptional opportunities for actions.

Social injustices provide a breeding ground for HIV and AIDS. Women should be empowered to gain a full control over their sexual and reproductive choices (Woman and Empowerment – Scribd).

Water and natural resources should be made readily available as a priority to ensure women capacity for a healthy, secure and dignified life. Sexual and reproductive health is fundamental to a woman’s ability to control what happens to her body.

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