Speedy urbanization brings about competition over land utilization between green partconservation and urban expansion in cities and significantly affects ecosystems along with human welfare. This rivalry is significant across the globe as various cities are now substituting existing green regions with novel developments. The part around Dag Ham-marskjöld’sväg in Uppsala is presentlyfacing the same encounter as the necessity the urban has for novel housing poses a threat for the numerous valuable green parts that are in the site. The study purpose was to comprehend how the necessity of urban expansion and the conservation of green regions could be balanced. This understanding would subsequently be used to generate a design plan for the region around Dag Hammarskjöld’s väg. A literature study that concentrated on three urban design ideologies was made. The Compact city, Landscape urbanism,and the Garden city were believed to offersolutions for the problem of balancing green zone preservation and urban expansion. The methodology used included literature study, attending seminars and analysis of policy records, websites, newspapers articles, maps and field visit.
The world’s urban population is anticipated to upsurge from 3.6 billion to 6.3 billion between 2011 and 2050. This signifies a 72 percent increase in not more than 40 years. Even though the highest part of the urbanization will occur in less industrialized nations, most big cities are expanding worldwide. According to(Share of world urban population growth by region of the world (2010-50), the key expansion is anticipated to transpire in bigger cities, in conglomerates of towns and in the mega metropolises. To demonstrate the rapid urbanization, New York and Tokyo were the only existing mega cities globally hosting more than 10 million people in 1970 . Currently, there are twenty-three mega cities and by the year 2025 the figure is projected to be thirty-seven. Malik and Wahid anticipate thatby 2025, nineteen new cities will accommodate between 5 to10 million occupants, there will be 178 new towns with 1 to 5 million occupants and 225 new towns ranging between 0.5 and 1 million inhabitants. This implies there will be 669 towns with more than a million residents by 2025.
1.2 Research Problem
The competition between green region conservation and urban advancement generates conflict over the utilization of land near to the cities. Expansion is desired to resolve the housing issues resulting from the rapid urbanization. Additionally, development could add novel opportunities and potentials to the cities. However, the green parts carry numerous functions, vital for the urban surroundings and its inhabitants. Green area conservation and urban development contend against one other in this engagement of land utilization. Nevertheless, instead of concentrating on this as dichotomous variables, by choosing one at the cost of the other, the problem could be: In what way can the need for urban development and green area conservation be balanced?
The study purpose is to understand exactly how the need of conservation of green parts and the urban development can be balanced. This comprehension will then be used to make a design suggestion for the region around Dag Hammarskjöld’s väg.
1.4 Research questions
The main research question is: How can equilibrium between green zone preservation and urban development be attained at Dag Hammarskjöld’s väg in Uppsala? In order to answer this question, two secondary queries are addressed.
- How do various urban design ideologies manage the competition between urban expansion and green zone preservation?
- Which design resolutions are offered by various urban design principles for generating a balance between green region preservation and urban expansion?
1.5 Target groups
This research proposal presents pertinent ideas for landscape architects, urban planners, architects, and policymakers, as they are groups that professionally handle related issues and impact the existing ideological planning practice in their daily work to realize healthier plans and designs.
Because time is a limiting aspect, and the design offer for the region indicates one possible resolution at the very early phase of planning, the information existing in the proposal will be estimated. This implies that the graphics on maps are purposed to communicate the general core of how the design plans could be executed but not how in terms of location, scale, and final shape. For example the constructions will be presented as blocks in the plan even though no judgment is put into the ultimate shape of the various house typologies at the location. Additionally, on the site visits the impressions of the various areas will be the basis of how to adjust the region to the design tactics, thus, no consumer observations or additional types of studies that inquire local dwellers for their judgment will be made. Also, the region will not be evaluated by character methodically, even though the main topographies will be described.
2. Literature Review
As stated byYang, the present rate at which individuals are migrating to towns infers that urban lands are currently facing major modifications. Whereas cities are developing, with new environs with facilities and culture, urban green regions are normally reduced to allow development. The declining urban and per-urban green parts could have an adverse impact on both human wellbeing and environments. The replacement of green parts by urban growth challenges numerous other significant elements of urban green regions. Velegrinis and Weller emphasizes on the psychological and social benefits of green zone conservation. Thus, there is a conflict regarding green part preservation and the necessity for urban expansion. This encounter is experience by majority of all growing cities in the globe, counting cities in Sweden.
As stated by Basic statistics of Sweden, 2013, vSweden, in 2013 had its highest population growth with an upsurge of 88 976 individuals since 1946, and therefore attaining a total of 9 644 864inhabitants.The growth happened mostly in urban regions, though seventy percent municipalities in the nation also augmented their population.According to Urban and rural population, proportion urban and average annual rate of change of the proportion urban, it is projected that Sweden will have exceeded10 million individuals by the year 2020, and about 11.3 million by year 2050. It is also projected that the migration from the countryside to the larger citieswill be higher. Consequently, 70 percent of the population growth is projected to be intense in the areas around Gothenburg, Stockholm, and Malmö. According to Urban and rural population, proportion urban and average annual rate of change of the proportion urban, Stockholm is anticipated to grow with 30 000 inhabitants annually reaching 3 million by year 2040. Thus, the city will need to double the urban developmentrate,implying critical challenges for the conservation of green zones.
Uppsala is a city in the growing region of Mälardalen with Stockholm as its epicenter for urban development and economic growth. Amcoff projected that by 2030, Uppsala city’s population will have grown with about 40 000 residents. Thus, development of novel housing areas is required. Despite the fact that Uppsala is smaller than the most fastexpanding cities worldwide, the rivalry between green area conservation and urban expansion is still vital as it creates a challenge to the preservation of green zones and the particular values presented by them for instanceserenity, welfares for ecosystems and human wellbeing.
Andersson, Ahrné, Pyykönen and Elmqvist wrote that in the year 1643, Uppsala got a novel grid system that substituted the outdated medieval city structure. During the early phase of 1900s the compact over exploited Swedish cities was becoming progressively more unsatisfying. The increasing rate of urbanization was causing an enlargement of the grid structure that was missing open spaces and parks. This worsened the sanitary issues and the health state of the cities. As ananswer the issues, Swedish modernist planning that had a robust social agenda finished the custom of compact building. In its place, light air and greenery became the mantra of evolving the new Swedish folkem.
According toLjungberg andGebresenbet,in 1960s, a resolution was made that stopped the incessant expansion of Uppsalas grid and causedregions separated by long expanses and green zones. This can be realized in the southwesternareas of Uppsala where the Dag Hammarskjöld’s väg is situated. In the year 1965 the million-program was introduced as a solution to the housing scarcity and contributed to a hounded thousand apartments every year for 10 year.Gottsunda, which is the biggest Neighborhood in southern Uppsala, is a product of the million-program.Currently, the existingstandard of development has moved back to the compact city model and this will influence the structure of the green zones around Dag Hammarskjöld’s väg as the place develops.
Dag Hammarskjöld’s väg, which is a major straight street, cuts across the clearly defined vale of southern Uppsala which comprises some of the town’s greenest spaces, which has numerous special values andcharacters tied to these green zones. These valuesand characters are not merely worth conserving, but could also be enhanced with new potentials and practicesimportant to general public. Some special characters examples includeBäcklösa with its red recorded species,Kronparken,comprising 350 year old pine trees, and the forested esker as well as the Fyris River. Other usages adding up to the attractiveness along this comparatively low exploited highway are the numeroussignificant university institutes. The easy alignment of the huge road in conjunction with Uppsala’s image, closely connected to its universities, makes the road rather a milestone for higher education and information. This is vitalas education and knowledge constantly has been a key part of Uppsala’s history and the reason behind Uppsala’s prosperity.
The green values nearby Dag Hammarskjöld’s väg are currently threatened since the regions areencountering major modifications. The city of Uppsala has recorded the region as a zone of growth. Moreover, HenrikJhulin, a city project leader for the expansion of Dag Hammarskjöld’s väg, asserts that this could become one of Sweden’s biggest city expansion projects. Housing strategies for NorraBäcklösa, which is contained in the listed region of development, is at present out as an investigation document waiting for endorsement. In the Rosendalregion, the building work is already underway(Ljungberg, &Gebresenbet, 2004). On the other side of the highway, the city recently purchased land 774 000 square meters for 1.8 billion Swedish kronor in Ulleråker, anticipating to construct 8000 novel apartments. Despite the fact that development is a great opportunity resolving housing shortage, it poses a danger to the conservation of the green parts.
The study has chosen Uppsala city as research topic since it has proven to be a region of growth with the biggest city expansion projects in Sweden, and numerous housing strategies underway. So as to find an appropriate answer to the central question the methodology was alienated into two portions. The first part concerns the gathering of information on how to comprehend and discovery possible solutions to the rivalry between urban expansion and green zone preservation, which will be done via a literature study and by going to a seminar on the theme. The second part concerns the formation of the of the design plan, where the information that allow for comprehension of the particular prerequisites at the Dag Hammarskjöld’s region will be gathered, analyzed and work through a design procedure. This will include analysis of policy records, websites, newspapers articles, maps and field visit.
In the first part, understanding the conflict, the literature study will be conducted in this proposal which is intended to look at the relationship between green region preservation and urban expansion. The focus is to understand how various urban design ideologies manage the conflict between urban growth and green area conservation. The determination of the research is to ground the design plan for the region of Dag Hammarskjöld’s väg in pertinent literature. This will be done by obtaining design schemes that could inform the design plan. The databases that will be used to find the literature are Primo SLU Google and scholar. The urban design ideologies which will be examined are: The Compact city, Landscape urbanism and The Garden city. Journal articles supporting the argumentation under the various ideologies will be reviewed.
Because the matter of Landscape urbanism is rather new, it may be hard to find good data in the prevailing literature, particularly when it comes to actual large scale city projects associated to the study focus. Therefore I intent to attended a seminar on the topic of Landscape urbanism and sustainable urban development, prearranged by White architects in Uppsala on June 25, 2016. The aim of attending the seminar is to gather data and use it to develop design plans for the scheme of Dag Hammarskjöld’s väg.
In the second part of the methodology, that is understanding the site, analysis of newspapers articles, policy documents, maps and Internet pages will be performed so as to get data about the region around Dag Hammarskjöld’s väg, with an aim of obtaining a healthier understanding of the present planning and development state, the physiognomies of the green regions, and how the green parts relate to each other as a general system. The determination of the study is to ground the design proposal on the site specific conditions.The policy documents are projected to mainly come from the city of Uppsala. The newspaper articles will be obtained from the Uppsala grounded newspaper. Sites to be visited include: Vattenmyndigheten, Upplandsstiftelsen, Länsstyrelsen, and Uppsala kommun, which describes the local green regions. Google maps and Lantmäterietsorthophoto will be used.
Site visits will be made to get better comprehension of the site and to learn about, experience and examine the area at large, at different times. The intention is to find ideas and answers on how to balance green part preservation with urban expansion with site particular solutions. The site visits will be made on June 27, July 3 and July 12, 2016. During the visit, photography and notes will be taken to help document the impressions.
3.3 Research Timeline
The investigation is intended to commence on 15th of June, 2016 and end on 15th of July 2016. The study is estimated to take about one month to be completed.