Morphine, as an opiate has a long and complicated history. It was created to relieve severe and agonic pain. However, its popularity has declined because of the additional qualities. This opiate has been an inspiration for a number of poets and writers. In this paper, we will describe its qualities and effects on the body. In addition, we will show a brief history of the morphine, strict governmental laws and its transformation into severe drug, such as heroin. Moreover, in this paper, it will be mentioned about side effects and symptoms caused by this kind of drug in order to reveal how it works in the body.
First of all, there is a need to define the morphine as a drug that affects the body and mind. This kind of opiate is extracted from the poppy plant, and it acquired such a name from the Greek mythology. The forename of Morpheus, the god of dreams, was developed into morphine, an opiate narcotic. At the beginning, it was a drug with a purpose to reduce pain caused by different traumas. Before and even after the surgery, it alleviates painful feelings of a patient. Morphine was created by Friederich Wilhelm Adam Sertumer in 1804. It became available in 1827 in one drug-store. Since that time, this opiate grew in popularity and became widely used after the invention of hypodermic needle. It was the first active principle derived from the poppy. Like opium, it has more than fifty alkaloids in its structure as it is a poppy straw concentrate. This drug is less strong than opium and has about ten percent of the opium strength and effects on the body. Morphine, unlike other opiates, such as codeine and thiamine, is extracted at the early life cycle of the poppy plant. Such opiate affects the body through neurotransmission and production of endorphins by a human organism.
In the medicine, morphine is regarded as the best opium containing analgesic that can reduce sufferings of the patient. With its discovery, it acquired big popularity in hospitals and medical institutions. Acting on the central nervous system, it relieves pain and eradicates agony. Being a narcotic, it can cause physical and psychical addiction, as well as tolerance of the body. During the Civil War, as well as in the course of both world wars, it became traditional painkiller. As an analog to opium and laudanum, it was used to relieve soldiers and suffered people after or before surgery in the field hospitals. Its analgesic effects was thought to be the strongest among other opiates. In the early stages of the Civil War, it was used as a powerful anesthesia for the operations as it was sprinkled directly on the wound. Moreover, during such a harsh time, it was used as sedation for soldiers in order to recover fast and avoid any infections in the wounds. Since this time, it became more popular and it was available to surgeons in order to make injections into the body of a patient in a liquid form.
Later, the popularity of the morphine declined. It was investigated that morphine develops an addiction together with other strong opiates. In addition, there is a danger of an overdose that can kill person. Acting as an opiate, it can produce respiratory depression, caught, sedation and nausea, if taken in big quantities. During the Civil War, many of the soldiers became addicted. About 400,000 soldiers experienced high addictive qualities of morphine. As a result, soldiers guarded this drug in order to prevent its stealing. The downfall of a drug was caused by numerous cases of the drug addiction. Afterwards, its use was reduced but it did not stop. In the modern world, medications with opium containing drugs are given only under the appropriate medical supervision, as well as its use is highly restricted and supervised by the doctor.
Morphine, acting on the central neurological system, produces the feeling of pleasure and euphoria. The well-known drug heroin, one of the strongest drugs, is a transformation of the morphine. In the hope to create less habit-forming drug, chemists made codeine. After several experiments, chemists produced heroin. It was thought to be the treatment of morphine addiction but it turned out that heroin produces much more severe addiction than other pharmacons containing drugs.
Being an opiate, morphine produces hallucinations and altered state of consciousness. After the long use, morphine causes physical dependence, tolerance and addiction. On the other side, it has side effects and causes deadly overdoses. The bed trip causes less harm when euphoria transforms into nightmares and other depressive mental effects. Blurry vision and sleepy state of mind affect the person individually and produce the state of well-being or harsh unpleasant feelings. Active morphine reduces the feeling of hunger and fatigue, as well as pain from medication. Mainly, it is injected under the skin with a help of hypodermic needle. What is more, it is available in tablets or elixirs. Quick drug addiction is caused by the strong physical effects and mental transformation. Nevertheless, morphine dependence is thought to be treated easier than alcohol dependence. An inability to stop using opium is the first sign to start treatment. Usually drug dependence needs long-term treatment and control. Improvement of the social consciousness and well-being is the first step to reduce numerous cases of morphine addiction. Diverse treatment strategies in combination have positive influence and reduce addiction.
Morphine, one of the strongest drugs, was used by poets and writers in order to develop new vision of life. This drug, being a source of inspiration, was regarded by the Bohemia as a best opiate to see new boundaries and states of mind. Writers, poets, painters and other artistic people were second men, after soldiers, who became massively addicted. On the other side, it was controlled by the government in order to severely supervise the cases of morphine use. Since 1970, morphine was placed in the list of controlled substances. The government of the USA considers morphine to be both medical treatment and severe narcotic. Since that time and until now, illegal selling of this drug carries serious penalties or imprisonment. Morphine can also lead to other sorts of crime. That is why its usage and distribution are under the full control of the government and police.
To sum up, we can say that morphine, as a strong opium, has its advantages and disadvantages. On the one hand, it is a great painkiller that relieves pain attacks and redounds to the whole treatment process. On the other hand, this drug has harsh side effects. Morphine causes fast addiction, and its overdoses can result in death of a human. That is why it was used by soldiers to reduce agony and sufferings, as well as by Bohemia and other addicts as a source of inspiration and enlightened state of mind in reality. Conscious treatment with a help of this medicine causes better recovery and pain elimination. Government controls any kind of morphine distribution, so illegal affairs are harshly punished according to the law.