One of the most important developments that took place in the world was scientific revolution. It was one of the markers of western intellectual tradition and it also revolutionized how people perceived the world. The scientific revolution also acted as a base for industrial growth and therefore was instrumental in development of the modern world. Scientific revolution can therefore be perceived as an epistemological revolution that greatly changed mans perception of the world and all things in it. For along time, the world had been perceived in terms of religious beliefs. People believed what the church said the perception of the church also reflected people perception of the world. Scientific revolution ushered in a new era of confrontation between the church and the scientific field but it was instrumental in ushering in a new development era. Scientific revolution went through a number of stages to the modern sophisticated scientific era which is based on experimental proving of theories. However the modern scientific era has more impact on the world and our lives compared to the earlier scientific revolution that created confrontation with the church.
The early scientific revolution
Renaissance scholars had formed the base for scientific revolution. The provided the base for thinking outside the usual religious connotation, which was believed to be final in all things. The coming of scientific revolution was in an attempt to understand the explain man and the world in general. It was from questioning of long held religious beliefs that the new era of scientific reasoning came into being.
During the middle ages, the emergence of scholars who had been influenced by Renaissance thoughts made great contribution to scientific revolution. The thoughts of Polish astronomer Nicholas Copernicus, French philosopher Rene Descartes, and British mathematician Isaac Newton, had important contribution the growth and scientific revolution. They overturned the thinking and authority of Middle Ages and the classical world and ushered in a new era of thinking that was based on scientific prove. Let us look into the thinking of the middle and classical ages
While this may not directly refer to the church, it also reflects the conflict that came into being due to scientific discovery of the time. This took place long before the Lutheran Reformation had taken place. The authority in middle ages and classical world was made up of scientific preposition of Aristotle, Ptolemy, and Galen. During the twelve and thirteenth century, important scientific discovery were made by Aristotle and other mentioned above. Aristotle discoveries were however taken to the subsequent centuries through Islamic world which had worked to preserve Aristotelian and Plantonic philosophies in Europe. Aristotle is credited with having brought into space the empirical thinking through which scientific method of observation and derivation of theory was developed.
However, the seventeenth and sixteenth century ushered in a new era in scientific revolution. It brought in a new era in which scientific methods were employed to understand nature and man in general. The two centuries brought in an era in which man made great strides in understanding biology, physics, anatomy, chemistry, astronomy, and others. There were important discoveries which enabled the scientific world to form the base for modern science.
One of the observable aspects of this scientific era is that it helped the world to understand nature in another way. Traditionally, the view of nature had been dictated by the perceived religious superstitions which were guarded precariously. Any utterance or though against the guarded religious views was punishable by death. This was the case of astronomies like Galileo. Galileo was one of the astronomists who suffered from the long held church superstitions on nature. Galileo, an Italian scientific made the first daring move by challenging the long held church traditional view of the world. Among his important contributions was improvement of the telescope. Although he is credited with having made other important contributions to physics, mathematics, and philosophy, his contribution to astronomy elicited reactions from the church and consequently led to his execution.He promoted corpenicanism arguing against the belief that the earth was the center of the universe. Through his astronomical developments, he showed that the sun was the center of the earth and this heliocentric view was met with a bitter from many philosophers and clerics who were ardent supporters of church tradition. IN 1615, he was denounced to Roman Inquisition and was eventually condemned of heresy and spent the rest of his life under a house arrest. Galileo perhaps made the most important contribution to scientific world than any other scientist.
The early phase of scientific revolution was important as it changed the world view of nature. It brought in a new understanding that was in line with what could be scientifically proved. The early scientists were important in changing the philosophical through of scientific as they proved these thoughts using science through formalized mathematics and scientific inquiry. They made important contributions to the modern science as they provided the base for scientific understanding of the world.
However, they had some negative effects. First they brought in a new era of detesting the long held religious beliefs that had formed a cohesive world society. This had an indirect contribution to the disintegration of the world religious community that acted as a fabric that had held the church and the society together. For a long time, people had held a traditional reliance on the church for anything that was beyond their recognition. The church had formed an understanding of the nature. This conflict consequently brought in a controversy especially after Galileo was put under house arrest. This confrontation between scientist and the church led to a bitter relationship between the two which persist even today as most scientific discovery like family planning methods, have been vehemently opposed by the Roman Catholic Church.
Another negative effect of the early scientific revolution was that they did not provide a departure from the social thoughts. Although they provided a scientific view of nature, they still continued with the traditional knowledge and practices like magic, and the religious beliefs. Although these scientists detested some long held view by the church, they still held their religious beliefs. This means that there was no departure from long held traditional practices and beliefs. It was only perceived scientific through that changed the world but it did not change the social view. Social, economically, and even politically, the society remained the same. Although it provided the base for scholarship and acceleration in industrial revolution, it remained to have little impact in people’s life until much later.
Modern science was developed from the works of the earlier scientific revolution. Modern science has been expanded in scope, coverage and accuracy. With the invention of machines and sophisticated laboratory equipments, the modern science has been able to bring more impact in people lives that what the earlier science had done. Today, there are scientists spread all over the world, who are making an impact through organized experimental research that is based on the need to chance social life. Unlike the earlier scientific revolution that was aimed at changing peoples view, modern science is working towards coming up with facts that are like to change the social, economical, and political life of people. Today, science is dictating almost all spheres of life. There has been great advancement in scientific research in medicine, physics, and other areas that have changed the life of people.
Modern science had really changed the life of people. It has assisted the world to confront most of the problems that are currently challenging political, economical, and social water. Unlike in the past, modern scientific revolution has had a greater impact in all spheres of life.
Modern science has made great strides in helping people to annihilate diseases. With emergence of new diseases, there are scientist at work in a bid to come up with medication and vaccines. In deed, the modern scientific revolution has wiped out traditional diseases that had killed people in masses traditionally. Increased scientific discoveries in medial field have helped the world to deal with various diseases that had killed millions of people earlier. However that are still challenges since there is still not cure in sight for disease like AIDS although there are positive progresses that have been made in assisting people mitigate the effects of the disease.
Unfortunately, there are negative effects that have come up due to the modern science revolution. There is a great debate whether the modern science has in deed brought in more positive or negative aspects. Like the earlier scientific revolution, there are positive and negative effects the world has faced from the modern scientific revolution.
Modern scientific revolution has also led to emergence of industries which have positive and negative changed our life. Scientific revolution has in deed impacted positive on the economic life of the people as it has enabled growth and expansion of the world economy in such a way that there are more foods for all people in the world although this still remains controversial owing to unfair distribution of world resources. The increase in factories has led to emergence of diseases like lifestyle disease including diabetes, obesity, and many others. The new diseases have been a great challenge to the scientific world.
Other scientific discoveries have also impacted negative on the world. For example development of nuclear weapons poses a great threat to the world and they may wipe out the whole human race. There are challenges which are emerging on the ways to handle scientific evolution.
The changing nature of experimentation has led to emergence of new experimentation era. Guided by the Nuremberg codes, the modern scientific research first starts with animals before being done on humans. This has brought new controversial based on ethical issues. There have been issues of using humans in the third world to carry out experiments against the important ethical codes that guide experiments. In deed, the most challenging issues facing the development of modern scientific research is adherence to ethical issues. It is been presumed that there should be declaration of independence type of oath and law before being allowed to practice science in order to reduce the negative effects that science is having on peoples lives.