Introduction

The international sports community evolves rapidly. Traditionally, sport activities favored by the community are very different in their natures.  The type of the sport favored in a particular country is determined by the numerous factors, including cultural, geographical, traditional, religious and other elements which determine sports culture of the targeted country. Moreover, the development of sports as a profession and sports institutions as the necessary elements of the social structure of the society is highly influenced by the intervention of the state sports authorities, civic sports institutions and national minority groups. For instance, football which is nowadays regarded as one of the most popular sport activities globally have evolved from the sport activity of the Irish minorities  dwelling in London. Thereafter, this activity was popularized by the Britons and nowadays it is ubiquitously regarded as one of the most popular and globally recognized sport activity.

Special scrutiny has been laid by the sport authorities and various research institutions to the aspects closely connected with the employment rights of the football players.  There is a long history of the everlasting dispute between the government authorities of the numerous countries and the international sports communities regarding the status of the professional sportsmen as employees. The officials of the state historically disputed the validity of the claims of the sportsmen that they shall be granted the same employment rights as their non-sport competitors. The very idea that active participation in sport events can be monetary-rewarding was often disregarded by the sport authorities of the state. In particular baseball as a professional occupation was recognized by the United States sport authorities in the early 1950th,  while professional football players received their status in GB only in  1931. The countries of the former USSR followed purely communistic approach, declining to recognize that sport can be considered as a professional occupation at all. The players were military officers, factory workers and so on, but their employment documentation never contained anything indicating that the bearer was somehow connected to sport. Monetary remuneration was not even considered and the only means to motivate the players to active participation were various bonuses and privileges granted by the government.

Another important aspect closely connected with the development of the sport institutions is the application of the doping, i.e.t various substances of chemical nature which are utilized by the professional sports people in order to increase temporarily their physical abilities or capacities. Internationally, the use of the doping-related substances is considered as one of the most blatant violations of the professional ethics and applicable sports law provisions.

Overall, the aim of this paper is to evaluate the aspects connected with the ethics and diversity of the sport availability of the different countries. In particular, it is extensively discourses whether the sports people are granted with the same employment rights as other professionals. The paper examines ethical, critical and communicational aspects of this issue. Secondly, the focus of the research is made on the abilities of the controlling authorities to organize and conduct test procedures on the doping-related issues. In this very case ethical and communicational aspects are integrally important as well.

Thirdly, the paper is focused on the availability of the various sports-related career prospects in various countries.  In particular, the peculiarities of the sports career development in the USA, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland , Continental Europe and Asian Countries are analyzed in this paper.

Methodology

The Case Study is an effective tool to conduct a detailed research within the frames of a specific phenomenon. The aim of the qualitative case study is to simplify the exploration and discovery of a specific phenomenon, while various data sources are applied by the researcher. A detailed exploration of the topic and a close review of the subject matter of the case study are required for an effective case study. The process of composing a case study is simple in its nature.

The First Step of the Case Study - Defining the Unit and the Objects of the Study 

The first step is the process of definition, which subject matter or criteria will be used for the purposes of the case study. To be more exact, at this stage, both novice and experienced researchers are required to identify the research question or a set of research questions  The most commonly encountered mistake at this stage is the failure to define the scope of the questions sufficiently enough . If this omission is perpetrated, the outcome of the study can be seriously affected .

The Second Step of the Effective Case Study

The second step in composing an effective case study is to set the limits of the study or, in other words, to ascertain what aspects will not be reviewed in this case study. To be more exact, the research problem must be formulated too broadly or there may be too many objectives for a particular case. If one defines the topic of the case study too broadly, the results will be naturally misinterpreted by the researcher, because the scope of the research tools will not cover peculiarities of a specific research topic.

Covering the aspects of the present research topic, an effective case study shall be integrally limited to the confines of the problem . As it has been mentioned in the previous sections, the problem is defined in the following way: Do employees with higher job satisfaction have a greater desire to work than their colleagues who are not particularly satisfied with the job environment in their workplaces in sports units which primarily operate in the sports markets? In the presence instance, companies operating in the sports market must be regarded by the researcher, as well as conditions that are somehow connected with the working environment must be reviewed by the research team.

To illustrate, for the purposes of the present study, there is no need to focus on issues which address the performance of legal, oil, mining or tourism companies, and there is no necessity to describe the factors whose nature is not connected with the working environment of a specific sports unit, but which hypothetically may, in their turn, affect the performance of a specific sports company. For instance, there is no need to scrutinize the market situation of the company or to put accent on the Human Resources policy of the company due to the fact that these factors are not necessarily connected with the performance of the company. In fact, they influence the overall performance of the company in general and the financial performance of the company in particular. However, for the hypothesis of the present study, these assumptions are irrelevant. Therefore, in this study, the data will be solely confined to the issues which cover the aspects connected with the working performance of sports agents who operate in the sports industry exclusively and who are not linked to operations of the firm in other industries.

Determination of the Type of the Case Study

The main purpose of this stage is to ensure that the proper structure of the case will be chosen to address the needs of a specific research activity. To be more exact, there exist several types of case studies, and they are universally utilized for a variety of different purposes. The specific identities of various cases studies are used to group them into explanatory, descriptive or exploratory accordingly.

The overall objective of explanatory case studies is to ensure that the subject matter of a specific study, which may be outwardly difficult for laymen and other non-professionals to understand, must be explained in a clear and comprehensible way so that everyone can comprehend the peculiarities and understand even the most insignificant details of the case study  Another widely recognized aim of this type of case study is to ensure that the research process is linked to the projected results of the case study in question (Yin, 2003). Besides, this very case study strategy is utilized when traditional experimental studies are not applicable and when the traditional type of survey is not possible.

The Exploratory Case Study

The goal of this case study is to inform the target audience about the outcomes of a specific scientific or non-scientific phenomenon, which are not currently available for international and national research communities. Regarding this type of case study from purely scientific positions, it can be easily assumed that this type of case study in general and academic research in particular can be determined as the most important one, due to the fact that an exploratory case study provides scientific and sports communities with answers to some currently unanswered questions.

However, it must be noted that scientific authenticity and reliability of this type of case study is among the most questionable and objectionable one. Leading scholars permanently dispute the relevance and applicability of these case studies, vigorously advocating the idea that these case studies are in advance erroneous in their nature and that they shall never be used for subsequent research, unless their authenticity is corroborated by advanced studies. However, the importance of these case studies can hardly be disputed, primarily due to the fact that they may effectively serve as a starting point for researchers when other data are not available for the scientific community .

Descriptive Case Study

The aim of a descriptive case study is to provide a target audience (irrespective of the fact that the target audience is professional researchers or the general public) with necessary information. Descriptive case studies are usually applied by scientific and sports communities to corroborate and affirm the findings drawn from exploratory and explanatory case studies. Therefore, assuming the fact that an exploratory case study is considerably substantiated and well-supported by the findings of a descriptive case study, the obtained results can effectively serve as supportive arguments for the validity of specific conclusions, which are inherent in an exploratory case study (Stones, 1988). It is used by the scientific community purely to substantiate real-life situations which have already occurred and which do not require conducting a fundamental and meticulous research (Schein, 1983).

Instrumental Case Study

The aim of an instrumental case study is to ensure that the case is to polish the applicability of a specific theory rather than to develop a general understanding of a specific problem, which is a subject matter of the case study . Thus, these case studies are applied purely for educational purposes, and the outcome of the case study itself is not necessarily important, whereas the accent should be put on how the research is conducted and how consecutively the case study stages are being followed by an individual researcher in order to estimate the individual performance of each researcher of the team.

Multiple and Collective Comparative Case Studies

The purpose of these case studies is to find similarities, commonalities, and differences in case study phenomena. The key factors of these case studies lie primarily in the understanding of the researcher that cases are selected meticulously and that the data have been collected properly and accurately, hereby ensuring that the limits of the case study have not been transcended by a researcher or by a team of researchers . Generally, the aim of these case studies is to affirm a specific hypothesis and corroborate it empirically. Because of these reasons, cases must be selected as carefully as possible, with specific attention paid to the fact that the limits and restrictions of the case are spanned by the goals of the case study and that the chosen information is connected to the research topic.

The Applicability of the Case Study Types to the Purposes of this Study

Having made a close review of the study topic, it has become evident that the peculiarities of the study topic undoubtedly require a combination of the abovementioned case study methods. To be more exact, the explanatory method can be utilized to explain the peculiarities of concepts and categories which are used by a researcher or a team of researchers in this case study.The objective of the exploratory model is to ensure that the aspects of the case study which have not been previously investigated by scientific and sports communities will be reviewed accordingly and closely (in particular, the effect that working environment conditions have on the performance of employees of a specific industry, which is sports companies in the present study. Overall, the application of various case study methods does seem to be the best alternative for the purposes of this study. It is an undisputed fact that the case study will be the best option for the researcher, primarily due to the facts mentioned below.

The Validity of Results

The outcomes which have been produced as a result of a case study are usually the most reliable scientific sources, which are widely applied for sports and scientific purposes. The subsequent corroboration of the outcomes obtained as a result of a combined case study, as we have in the present instance, is not scientifically necessitated, because the assumptions are made not on the basis of a thesis or a hypothesis, but on the basis of scientifically digested and processed data. The validity of results is always supported by a significant number of conducted calculations and by simultaneously conducted case studies with similar structures and similar case study objectives. Considering the above stated positive feature of an effective case study, it can be easily assumed that a researcher who conducts a research in accordance with the research method and postulates of an effective and accurate case study is likely to reach the highest level of scientific validity.

Peer Bias

The bias and criticism from peers is an integral constituent of any research method. Moreover, a prejudiced attitude has always been present in issues concerning effective research conducting, when the case study method is used as a primary methodology. Having surveyed the literature, it can be easily assumed that scientifically substantiated criticism of the case study has not been formulated sufficiently enough by the scientific community yet.

The Phenomenological Approach

Alongside with a wide application of the case study methods, the scientific community is extensively applying the so-called phenomenological approach, which is no less important from both scientific and sports standpoints. This section of the study is to outline the concept of the phenomenological research approach and to evaluate the relevance of this approach for the purposes of this research in question.

The Concept of the Phenomenological Approach

The concept of the phenomenological research approach first emerged on the scientific horizon in the early 30s of the 18th century. The essence of this approach is as follows. First and foremost, a specific assumption is made. Secondly, this assumption is formulated in a specific thesis statement. Then, the thesis statement is substantiated and supported by the empirical research, that is, personal experience and personal reflections obtained as a result of a direct communication with objects of a research study or with informational sources, which bear specific data that may directly or indirectly relate to the purposes of the study. 

One of the important advantages of this approach is that the phenomenological strategy helps to eradicate the disadvantages of specific research, which arise if it is conducted in accordance with “normative” rules. In particular, it helps to accentuate specific provisions of research from a purely personal standpoint, experience, and personal reflections .

The validity of research outcomes obtained from phenomenological research is the most disputed issue in scientific and sports communities. First and foremost, it is vitally important to stress the fact that the basis for the findings are personal reflections and personal experience, irrespective of the fact that personal experience could have been obtained empirically Therefore, whereas the validity of the results directly depends on peculiarities of a specific case study and while for one study it may be almost absolute and may be acknowledged by the entire scholarly community, for other study, this method will be extensively disputed and challenges; ultimately, the findings will not be recognized.

Findings

Having examined the situation with the international sports development in the various countries, with recourse to the combination of the above discussed methods the following inferences were made.

The United States of America

The development of the sport social institutions of the United States of America had a tremendous impact on the development of that country. As far as the first issue is concerned, the United States of America can be indeed considered as one of the most players friendly countries, since all the conditions which are necessary for the successful development of the sport institutions and integral development of the sportsmen personally have been highly cultivated.  Since 1930 the sportsmen of this country had one of the most favorable opportunities to develop their skills and to be engaged into the targeted activity professionally.   With regard to the second issue of the discussed case study, it must be stressed that professional sports people in this country are subjected to the doping control procedures the most rigorous way.  The use of the drugs and other doping related substances are strictly prohibited in that country.

European Countries and the United Kingdom

Having regarded the situation concerning the development of the sports institutions in the European countries, the situation is less favorable than the one in the United States of America. While the availability of the sports-related career opportunities is replete in the countries thereof, the doping control is less rigorous than the one of the USA.

Overall, it can be assumed that international evolution of sports has significant impact on the development of the civic societies thereof.

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