1.1 Healthy and Safe Environments
To fully support children and young people’s health and safety, it is important to identify the current health and safety of the same. It is important to note that Health and safety hazards vary from one particular place to another, depending on the type of hazard expected in a particular place (Tassoni, 2010). In this case, factors that determine health and safety hazards include; include the potential occupants, type of anticipated hazard, availability of first aid kits, and proximity to a medical facility to cater for the injured children. Proper analysis and reviewing of such factors, which determine healthy and safe indoor and outdoor environments, will help determine the intervention mechanism to be used. For instance, medical officers must consider the potential occupants of given environments to facilitate the planning process. Failure to understand the occupants means that the healthcare experts might not receive any considerable change in scope due to the increasing number of injuries, which such people are likely to incur in the workplace.
The other important factor is the type of hazard expected in particular environment. Through effective plans, the medical services providers could experience significant change regarding the type of hazards and the number of injured patients. In the recent years, such injuries might increase because the planners have not considered the actual hazards, which are specific to the environment (Phils Hughes, 2011). Factors such as the need to cut the cost associated with medical services have resulted into a considerable decline in the number of injuries in the work setting.
In fact, the numbers of children at risk and the injured patients are expected to decline further in future with continued change in policies. This means the availability of first aid kits for assisting victims is an essential part of planning. Although these plans do not significantly vary by state, the number of patients in varies with state.
1.2 How to Monitor and maintain Health and Safety in the Work Setting and how People are made Aware of Risks and Hazards and Encouraged to Work Safely.
In monitoring and maintaining health and safety, a high standard of hygiene must be constantly checked and maintained. The care takers must ensure that the children are living under good hygienic conditions and practices, such as toileting, eating and playing in safe environments. The toilets, kitchen, dining place and playing ground must be always kept very clean and safe for the children to use. In addition, people in the work setting are made aware of risks and hazards, as well as are encouraged to work safely by training them on the ways to keep the environment clean and healthy (Tassoni, 2010). Equipping them with the first aid kits and knowledge to enable them swiftly respond to emergencies, accidents and incidents. In order to make people aware of risks and hazards and encouraged to work safely, they must be kept informed about the potential environmental threats.
1.3 CSSIW, Welfare Requirement, Early Years Foundation Stage
CSSIW is a social care service inspectorate which encourages improvement of social care in the early ages or foundation stage. In this case, CSSIW inspects, regulates and reviews social care and provides professional advice on the same. Through integrated and proportionate approaches, CSSIW regulates adult placement schemes, children homes, day care services, independent fostering agencies, voluntary adoption agencies, residential family centres and boarding schools amongst many others. The Children’s Act, The Health and Safety at Work, etc Act 1974, The Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992, The Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992, and The Health and Safety (First Aid) Regulations 1981. The guidelines make it necessary for the care givers to seek the direct consent from the parents of guardians before administering any medicine to the sick child. This helps in avoiding the blame game, if the child does not respond well to the medication. On welfare requirement, workplaces consistently carry out audit of the safety equipment and make appropriate adjustments to the shortfalls that they detect. In children care centres; for example, they are obliged to observe all the legislation requirements about the employees’ safety. Such centres have done the significant work in ensuring that they meet the safety standards, which the government outlines for their operations. In doing so, they prevent the rate at which the children under their care sustain injuries in this environment (Phils 2011).
1.4 COSHH, RIDDOR, Children’s Act
RIDDOR regulations require that all injuries, diseases and dangerous occurrences are reported . In this case, play workers have a legal obligation or duty to ensure health safety and security of children at all times. This simply means that these regulations help to give a clear understanding on the awareness related to health procedures, safety procedures, emergencies and potential hazards. According to the Health and safety Act, employers should provide a safe work place, adequate equipment and training, recruit safety conscious staff, produce health and safety policies and assess risks in the environment. Some of the laws and regulations that protect health and security of children include; Health and safety Act 1974, regulations (RIDDOR) 1975, Food and hygiene regulation 2006 and Control of substance harmful to health (COSHH) regulations 2002 amongst many other laws and regulations. The current health and safety legislation, policies and procedures are implemented in own setting by adhering to the following requirements. First, it requires that those responsible for activities in the work setting should be able to support children and young people as they operate in such environments, thus, protecting them from sustaining injuries. Second, the health and safety services providers should make sure that they keep the workplace safe by controlling flood, sharp objects, dirty toilets, burglary, fire, bomb threat, and abduction, there are legislations, which seek to protect children from being exposed to harmful health effects of exposure to risks. Some of the legislative requirements include COSHH, RIDDOR, and Children’s Act (Tassoni 2010).
2.1 Identifying Potential Hazards
A clear assessment on the safety regulations ensures the risk and hazards alignments. It is important to note that a risk assessment is a necessary consideration in order to limit , control and assess potential hazards. In this case, it is very easy to identify potential health hazards, safety and security of children, young people, families, other visitors, and colleagues coming to that place. Some of the hazards include sharp objects, dirty toilets, unhygienic food preparation, infectious diseases, and metals that are rust (Tassoni, 2010). Others are flood, burglary, fire, bomb threat and abduction (Tassoni, 2010). These hazards should be identified early, so that immediate intervention is started to prevent their occurrence.
2.2 Dealing with the Hazards
Dealing with hazards can be made easier if all the rules and regulations are followed to the later. Additionally, workers must be committed to deal with the hazards in the workplace or in off-site visits, so that they could protect the children and young people from sustaining injuries. In dealing with hazards, children with communicable diseases should be kept away from others. There should be immediately given first aid and medical intervention to save the injured child from further infections. This measure is for preventing the occurrence of accidents and injuries in the work setting. In places where children play or stay, the application of hierarchy of control ensures that the workers are safeguarded from the risks and injuries, which are associated with the work environment (Tassoni, 2010).
2.2.1 Eliminating Risks
The most effective way of eliminating risks is to limit, control and assess risks.This is the most effective control measure in the work setting. The children, workers and management should collaborate to ensure that the risk are minimised and possibly eliminated. This would assure the children or other young people of total safety while staying in that place.
2.2.2 Engineering Controls
Engineering control helps to protect children from harmful exposures which probably occur in most settings is assured. It lays emphasis on the individual precaution on workplace risks to enable children grow up to be responsible people and become sensitive to their environment.
2.2.3 Administrative Controls
The administration should minimise and regulate the exposure through eliminating unexpected damping of the harmful object in the compound where children stay. The practice ensures that there are limited exposures of the children to sharp objects, according to the regulations.
2.3 Health and Safety Risk Assessment
Health and safety assessment is a very effective way of carrying out a health and safety risk assessment. Essentially, it will reduce the occurrence or recurrence of the problems, depending on the control measures, which the implementing agency uses and the person who is likely to sustain the injury. Different hazards happen to various people, thus the risk level could be high, low or medium, depending on the exposure and the person involved.
2.4 Monitoring and Reviewing Health and Safety Risk Assessment
Monitoring and constant checks on the environmental cleanliness and adherence to the policies help workers to monitor and review the health and safety risk assessment with a view to determine the best alternatives, which could be implemented to make the workplace friendly. The study revealed a lot regarding to the monitoring and reviewing health and safety risk assessment, potential occurrence or cases of flood, burglary, fire, bomb threat and abduction must be consistently checked (Phil Hughes, 2011). One of the problems that affected children was increased cases of abduction, especially when they were out of the care centre. In fact, many workers employed in the care centre over the years complained about increased abduction of children, a situation that affected their daily operations.
3.1 Balanced Approach to Risk Management
In order to make sure that the workplace is hospitable, it is important to take a balanced approach to risk management, so that no disastrous loophole is left in the work setting. In this case, safety precautions have been paramount to make sure that the children and young people are safe (Phil Hughes, 2011). Moreover, concerning the ways in which the care centre controlled the hazards, one believes that the care centre has put adequate measures to control the risks that the children and young people may face in the work setting, in a balanced way. For example, they provide a range of protective equipment, such as gumboots that the vulnerable children need when visiting the toilets or playing in the compound. With specific reference to fire hazard, the work setting provides the fire extinguishers, which the employees and children are expected to use when the fire breaks in the work setting (Tassoni, 2010).
The fire extinguishers were well spread in the place to cater for any emergency. Indeed, that was a balanced and adequate measure to minimise risks which result from the extreme fire outbreak. The workers further noted that it was an offence staying in the work-site without the protective devices, as this sent a wrong signal to children under their care. Moreover, the explanation showed that the care centre had a responsibility to cater for the fact that children, workers, and young people’s safety (Phil Hughes, 2011). Besides, workers observed a sense of the personal safety measures, by wearing the protective devices during the working hours that they could serve children. It was also observed that there were some leaflets pinned on the notice boards which outlined the safety precautions the young people and children had to observe. In addition, the care centre had the well-equipped first aid kit and the team of experts to cure the injured children and other young people.
3.2 Rights and Choices
Making the right choices in relation to health and safety is very important. This is because issues related to health and safety of children can help to save the lives of the children involved. Children have a right to play, but they should always consider boundaries. In addition, their choices are made with little regard to the outcome or safety of the item that they handle. In this regard, caring for children and other young people needs thoroughness and close monitoring. This means that they should not be denied the opportunity to play, but the environment must be made conducive for them to ensure that they maximize its use (Tassoni, 2010).
3.3 Practical Example
There are many practical examples related to health and safety of children cases. However, children and young people must try to assess and manage risks. In this way, the workers experienced will be beneficial and ensure the total safety of the children and other young people under their care. For example, a worker who is certain and believes that being safe - High level of personal safety, both physiological and physical , and a feeling of being protected by the system and emotional stability could do all within her or his power to make sure that children one protects do not suffer from any form of injury. The worker’s case is related to this situation, since it describes the need for the personal safety in the place of work. The workers under the personal safety thought that the workplace system would protect them, so that they would extend the protection to children (Phil Hughes, 2011). Without any doubt, safety is a precondition to the workplace practices, where children play and stay.
4.1 Policies and Procedures
There are many Legislations and policies which are appropriate in different settings. According to the Health and safety Act 1974, executives and employers are responsible for work related health and safety issues at the work place .This simply means that health and safety regulations and policies should be put in place at work places. The policies and regulations should include minimum standards such as; rest facilities, provision of drinking water, first Aid, toilet facilities, weather protection, medical rooms, good ventilation, staff rooms and enough space amongst many others. The Education regulations 1999 specify that Health and safety standards must be maintained in schools. However, these regulations must work or operate hand in hand with work place health safety and welfare regulations. Other additional policies include the Electricity at work place regulation 1989 which requires that all employers to minimise and assess electrical equipment and electricity risks. Other important laws, regulations and policies include; Health and safety Act 1974, regulations (RIDDOR) 1975, Food and hygiene regulation 2006 and Control of substance harmful to health (COSHH) regulations 2002 amongst many other laws and regulations
4.2 Recording and Reporting Workplace Hazards
The correct procedures for reporting and recording accidents, injuries, incidents, signs of illnesses and other emergencies to a responsible authority. Basically, the person recording such hazards should understand the injuries, which different children are likely to suffer from. This could make their report very much reliable and meet the threshold of the required standards. First, it must be conducted in an accurate and transparent way. Secondly, the work place has to provide safety guidelines for the effective reporting and recording of the hazards and what children are expected to do, in case of an injury, sickness in the work setting and fire outbreak (Phil Hughes, 2011).