Unit Discussions

1.Discuss what your text refers to as “best practices” for photographing specific types of evidence such as fingerprints, shoe prints, tire marks, or bite marks with a digital camera. To ensure admissibility in court, discuss the author’s recommendations concerning processing of digital photographs.

Lens should always be set to the closet focusing distance when capturing evidence such as bite marks and fingerprints. The camera should be as close as possible to the object. The object should be captured using the highest resolution in a precise one to one.

Tire marks and shoe prints should be captured in a full length photographs using the highest resolution possible, and the photo should fill the frame. These photographs should provide an accurate view of the tire marks or shoe prints.

To ensure admissibility in court, digital photographs should be recorded in an archival, unalterable form right away after the records are created and all images should have information concerning their creation.

2. Discuss the differences between the various formats that digital images are saved as on digital cameras. What are the main differences? Are there advantages to one type of format over another? Describe some specific situations where these advantages occur.

  • TIFF is a very flexible format that holds all the image data and can be lossy or lossless. Files in this format are quite big.
  • PNG is a lossless storage format. Unlike TIFF, its files can be compressed, but the compression is recoverable (Mathews, 2010).
  • RAW is a lossless storage format and its files are 33% smaller than TIFF files. Its images can only be opened by either the camera manufacturer’s RAW file opener or other RAW openers such as Adobe Camera Raw (Mathews, 2010).
  • BMP was invented by Microsoft as an uncompressed proprietary format
  • DNG is the universal camera raw format commonly referred to as Digital Negative. It is normally opened in Adobe Camera Raw
  • JPEG is a lossy type storage format with an irreversible image compression. It is not archival and uses YCC color space
  • JPG is optimized for images containing many colors and photographs. It maintains high image quality even in its compression state
  • JPEG2000 uses wavelet compression to compress images. It also uses YCC color space

3. The Electronic Crime Scene Discuss the procedures used to preserve computer evidence at a crime scene.

Procedures used to preserve computer evidence at a crime scene include (McGraw-Hill, 2007):

  • Discovering or recognizing the relevant physical evidence
  • Examining evidence to ascertain that it can be compared or tested in a crime laboratory
  • Collecting evidence with care and diligence in a lawful manner as well as following standard procedures
  • Carefully handling, packaging, and labeling evidence so as to avoid contamination, loss, damage or refutable links in the chain of custody
  • Carefully recording where, how, and by whom evidence as located to see that evidence has not been altered or tampered with
  • Carefully transporting the evidence to the crime laboratory, keeping the proper chain of custody and security
  • Maintaining the integrity of the chain of custody from the crime laboratory to the court after completing the tests
  • Explaining or presenting evidence in a court proceeding, and documenting the chain of custody

4. Investigating Cyber Crime discuss the different types of crimes committed with the aid of the Internet and the role of the forensic specialist in Cyber Crime investigations.

The types of crimes which are committed with the aid of the internet include (but are not limited to) auction fraud schemes, cyber stalking and predatory crimes, identity theft through phishing, and credit card fraud (Arthur, 2004). The role of a computer forensic specialist in cyber crime investigation is to employ computer forensic techniques to extract and analyze data from storage devices used at a digital crime scene with an aim of gathering evidence for trial.

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