The effort made in this paper is to focus entirely on the sources of alternative renewable energy in place of the typical coal for residential and commercial markets. The implementation of the renewable energies are known to offer reduction of the blow of global warming; reduction in the green house gas emissions that are caused by coal; and also creates positive competition in the markets for decreased energy costs. This is needed and required in Qatar.
This project will also study and research more on the current prevailing usage of the alternative energy with special interest on Qatar. This is with particular research on Qatar Science Technology Park (QSTP) because the topic on alternative energy has a promise of the future technology and it indicates growth in the engineering department.
Chapter One: Introduction
Qatar is among the fastest growing economies worldwide and is investing heavily in the energy sector of the country. Qatar mostly depends on its natural gas as a source of energy. The domestic energy utilization in the year 2009 was expected to be 17m t/y (17 million tons of coal per year) of oil equivalent which is an increase from the estimated 15.3million tons of coal per year of oil equivalent in the year 2007 and in the year 1993 it was estimated to be 13m t/y of oil equivalent. There are six Arab GCC (Gulf Co-operation Council) states which all faced shortages of power and deficits in their budget in 2009 except for Qatar. These countries have great reserves although they do not produce adequate gas to meet up their rising demands for electricity. On the contrary, Qatar is expected to have very minimal budget deficit, due to the surplus from the previous years. This is the surplus it has from export to the other GCC states (Kogan 23)
The energy base of Qatar is very limited. The oil consumption of Qatar was about 62,000 b/d (barrels per day) in 2009 which was an increase from the oil consumption in 2007 which was 50,000 b/d. In the year 1985, the oil consumption was 10,500 b/d, whereas the gasoline accounted for almost 50%. The natural gas is known to account for nearly 85% of its industrial and residential energy consumption and this does not include the gas that is exported through the pipeline and in NGL (Natural Gas Liquids) and LNG (liquid natural gas) forms, which is an increase from zero in 1960 (Kogan 34).
However, this is expected to increase after the expansion of the industrial sector and also the completion of the gas development projects in the North Field of Qatar. The gas consumption of Qatar in 2009 is expected to average 17.6 BCM (Bank Cubic Meter) per year when excluding the gas that is allocated for export and also the gas that is injected into oilfields. This is an increase from the year 2007 where this oil consumption was 14.5 BCM/year. In 2003, it was 11.6 BCM/year whereas in 1970 it was 1.0 BCM/year. The major suppliers to the Qatar domestic market is known to be ExxonMobil because it provides 744 MCF/d (1000 cubic feet of gas per day) since the year 2005 and this comes from the Al-Khaleej Gas often referred to as AKG-1. The AKG-2 of Exxon was expected to raise the total output to 2,000 MCF/d in the second half of 2009, for the local market in Qatar. The streams hereby are NGLs such as condensate, ethane, propane and butane and also the lean gas (John 76).
Chapter Two: Literature review
The gas that comes from the AKG-1 is more often used in both the Messai’eed and Ras Laffan industrial cities which meets the need for power in Qatar and this in turn helps to provide the feedstock for the GTL (gas-to-liquids) plant that is located in Ras Laffan which is the largest in the world. The AKG-2 gas supplies the sales gas in order to meet the domestic needs that are long-term in Qatar and also the regional gas customers. The AKG has three consumers which include the QP (Qatar Petroleum) that purchases gas for utilization in Messai’eed which is then resold to Ras Laffan Power Co., QPower, and the Oryx GTL. The AKG has built up facilities in order to supply the fuel gas to the Ras Laffan Refinery and the Ras Laffan Power Co. and to also handle the LPGs that were recovered in 2008 by the refinery (Oxford 45).
Qatar’s domestic market for gas is to be supplied from Barzan gas field which is a project that is under development by ExxonMobil and QP. However, this project has been delayed for several months and the next target date for start-up for production is set to be 2014. In an attempt to service the domestic gas market, the QP is encompassing a 211-km pipeline with other connected stations and also that the infrastructure should be ready by mid-2011. This pipeline’s purpose is to carry the estimated 2,000 MCF/d of the sweet lean gas straight from Ras Laffan to various customers located in Messai’eed.
This particular project is referred to as Strategic Gas Pipeline and it will involve the fitting of a two 36-inch lines and it is the second among the three main gas projects in Qatar. There are also the projects that will involve a 25-km and a140-km of carbon-steel pipelines and also the setting up of various booster stations within the Ras Laffan Industrial City in Qatar. The above mentioned 211-km gasline is expected to run in parallel to the ethylene pipeline of Ras Laffan- Messai’eed (Qatar Foundation 18).
The power sector in Qatar is also improving drastically and in September 2009 this sector is expected to have extra power capacity. The power sector was in negotiations with Kuwait on matters of selling electricity by way of GCC grid. Abdullah al-Attiyah is the Minister of Energy and Industry in Qatar and he stated that the biggest problem was that the GCC grid could not be able to take larger than 400-500 MW as transshipment. However there was the $2.3billion power plant which was built at Messai’eed with a capacity of 2,000 MW was to begin its first production in the month of September 2009. This would help bring in nearly 1,000 MW of additional power into Qatar. As a result, the generating capacity of Qatar would be raised to almost 5,300 MW (Qatar Foundation 21).
Qatar is also having an ongoing construction of a $3.9billion water and power plant which will be the largest in the country and will have an estimated capacity of 2,730 MW upon completion in 2011. These new plants will increase the power generating capacity of Qatar to almost 9,000 MW in the year 2011. These water desalination and power sector plants are heavily dependent on the levels of natural gas. The total consumption is almost 400 MCF/d and according to a statement by QP, this would increase to more than 450 MCF/day in the year 2010. The electricity demand in normal conditions was growing by nearly 7% per year, but this has increased by 17% since the year 2006.
The citizens of Qatar account for nearly 25% of consumers of the energy and almost 40% of total consumption and are continuing to receive power and water without making any charges and this is one of the major reasons why the demand for power and water are increasing rapidly. Doha, the capital city of Qatar, however does not intend to make any major alterations that would affect Qataris and this is due to the fact that the issue surrounding power and water tariffs is politically sensitive. In regard to this the Qatar government has set a specified monthly ceiling for all the household consumption by the nationals of Qatar, under which the customers are charged if their utilization of power and water exceeds the set limits (GE Imagination of Qatar 12).
The power generating capacity of Qatar in 1995 was 1,500 MW but this has grown tremendously. The current capacity is entirely owned by the Qatar Electricity and Water Company (Kahramaa), which was created in the year 1998 and is 57% privately-owned joint stock corporation. It took over the whole business of this sector from MEW (Ministry of Electricity and Water) which had been grossly inefficient and ineffective. The remaining capacity comprises of the power plants that are at the oilfields. By the year 2015, the power generating capacity is expected to have increased to 5,000 MW. In 2000, the MEW was replaced by Qatar General Electricity & Water Corporation (Kahraba) that is state-owned but since then the Kahraba has sold off its water desalination and power plants to the Kahramaa. This is because the QEWC (Kahramaa) were in the process of privatizing its water and power distribution and transmission systems. The Fichtner of Germany has made much more study on this subject (Qatar Foundation 23)
There is also the gas-fired venture that was first started in 2004 in Qatar at the Ras Laffan Industrial City as an IWPP (Independent Water and Power Producing) venture. The Ras Laffan Power Company (RLPC) is known to be a Joint Venture of the following corporations: the GCC’s Gulf Investment Corp (GIC of 10 percent); QP (10 percent); Kahraba (25 percent); and United States (55 percent). The Ras Laffan Power Company has a complex worth $720million which was built at Ras Laffan by the Enelpower of Italy and has a capacity of more than 1,500 MW of power and also 80m gallons of water per day. It is estimated that there will be some other two IWPPs by the year 2012 (GE Imagination of Qatar 18).
In Qatar there is also a 25-year PWPA (Power and Water Purchase Agreement) which was signed on March 1st 2005 by the Kahramaa together with a certain group which was awarded the second IWPP in September2004. There is also the JV firm, Q-Power which is led by Kahraba (55 percent). There are also partners who include the UK’s International Power with almost 40 percent and also the Chubu Electric Power Company of Japan with five percent. There is also the IWPP which is situated at Ras Laffan which has a capacity of 60m g/d of water and 1,025 MW of power. The initial phase was on stream in the year 2006 and its full capacity became in full operational in the year 2008. This plant is very close to the RLPC. The Kahramaa is known to buy water and power from its IWPPs under the 25-year PWPAs (Power and Water Purchase Agreements). The QP on the other hand is committed to provide the IWPPs with the sea water and natural gas under the long-term contracts (Technical Review 12).
There is also the gas-fired Ras Abu Fontas B complex situated in Al-Wusail which has operated since 1997 and comprises of a 33m g/d of water desalination and a 625 MW power plant. This was built by Asea Brown Boveri under a contract of $1.1 billion given in January 1994. The Ras Abu Fontas is connected to the national network of electricity through Doha system of transmission which was built in the year 1997 under a project worth $717milion. This was the fourth stage of a new grid for Qatar. The system of transmission was initially built by the European group that was led by the Cegelec of France (Entrepreneur 23).
The MEW was then totally abolished in the year 2000, whereas the Kahramaa was put up under the official chairmanship of the Energy and Industry Minister, Attiyah. The main tasks of Kahramaa have been to advance efficiency in the water and power systems. The number of employees has been cut down to 3,000 from 8,000. This is because Kahramaa is in the process of decreasing costs across the entire board. This is done in all areas that include the project planning and its implementation and also the IWPP business (GE Imagination of Qatar 21).
The invention and inauguration of the QSTP (Qatar Science & Technology Park) made the research vision of the development of Qatar to reach a new phase on the 16th of March 2009. Qatar is confident that the QSTP will help in the realization of the national vision by 2030 partly because it is an important component of the Qatar Foundation for Community Development: Science and Education. Secondly, because it is a branch of human development, developer of innovation and creativity, a very safe haven for all free scientific research, a space where ethnicities and cultures come together and finally it is a magnet for global and national expertise (Solar Buzz 23).
The executive chairman of the QSTP is Dr. Tidu Maini and he confirmed that the park is an important engine which drives forward all the applied technology and research particularly in Qatar. The park according to him is ready to create a conductive environment and also the ways to expand the available human capitol, which would spawn new industries that are technology-based. The park is also known to be a building block of the long term vision of the government of creating an economy that is post-carbon.
On March 18, 2009, the Qatar Science & Technology Park, the GreenGulf Incorporated and the consortium partners agreed to commence a facility of experiments in an attempt to study the various solar-to electricity conversion ways. This project was to be supported by the Chairperson of the Qatar Foundation, her highness Sheikha Mozah Bint Nasser Al-Missned. In the initial stages of this project, the GreenGulf would run immense trials of solar-thermal and photovoltaic electricity generation methods. The main interest was to be the performance of each of the technologies in the environmental conditions in the heat, humidity and dust of Qatar. (Technical Review 17)
This particular venture was aimed at establishing a 500KW pilot plant whereas using the most suitable technology that would supply adequate electricity to the Education City. The QSTP is of the view that solar is an achievable and a realistic source of renewable energy for Qatar as a whole. The venture by GreenGulf was an important step in developing and studying the solar technology. They would also commercialize their results through the way of pilot plant and this would help to accelerate the goal of Qatar of becoming an economy that is post-carbon. (GE Imagination of Qatar 27)
Later on in April 2009, the GreenGulf and Chevron Qatar Energy Technology, which is a branch of Chevron Corporation, signed an agreement and a memorandum of understanding for some joint study of testing the technologies of solar energy and their actual application and implementation in Qatar. This research was carried out in Qatar Science & Technology Park. This project was to gather and then evaluate the data which would be provided by the technologies that are located at every 35,000 square meter solar test location at the QSTP. This particular project would also study the performance of the various solar thermal and photovoltaic technologies. (Entrepreneur 56)
This project is in support of the strategy by QSTP of helping the growth of national solar energy industry especially in Qatar. The solar technologies differ in their particular sensitivity to heat and dust and also utilize various amounts of water and land, and these are reflected in relative costs. The measurements that have been obtained over a number of years under the Qatar climate conditions are expected to assist the local planners in evaluation, installation and selection of technologies that will be best suited to the prevailing local conditions. (Solar Buzz 45)
The two companies were to each invest $10 million to the program of study and the tests of technology are expected to start in the last quarter of 2010 and thereafter continue for two to four years. The CEO of the GreenGulf stated that solar energy is a potential and essential part of the future energy mix of the region. This will bring energy efficiency and will provide appropriate applications and technologies and also demonstrate sustainable solutions in regards to energy. The joint study will provide a very strong foundation where the knowledge will be built and will ensure that everyone will be updated about the moving industry. (Technical Review 34)
The Vice President of the Chevron Qatar Energy Technology, Carl Atallah, indicated that the two parties have appropriate strengths which would be a key to all successful projects. The Chevron has technical expertise whereas the GreenGulf has the entrepreneurial vision while the Qatar Foundation has the science community. All these excellent resources brought together are good for studying the solar energy. Chevron had earlier announced that it would establish its CSEE (Center for Sustainable Energy Efficiency) at QSTP in February 2009 which is now under processing. This would support the goal of energy sustainability through training, demonstration and research of energy efficiency and solar power technologies in Qatar. The Chevron CSEE will assist to identify building-efficiency, solar air-conditioning, solar power technologies which will work best in the conditions of the Middle East. This particular center was to be opened in the year 2010. (Entrepreneur 64)
There are many members of the Qatar Science Technology Park. There is the AES International Consultants, which is a firm that provides professional services on the needs of the environment and also offers solutions and strategies in regard to sustainable environment. Therefore the AES will carry out the applied research and development work which focuses on the prior development of environmental applications and models, particularly in Qatar. The AES will offer education and training in the field of environment and professional consulting services to the private as well as the public entities. They will also support the activities of the QSTP, especially in regard to energy productions in relation to the environment. (Technical Review 39)
There is also the ExxonMobil, which is the largest publicly traded global gas and Oil Company in the world; it is also a leader in the liquefied technology of natural gas. This company established an ExxonMobil Research Qatar, which will be charged with the responsibility of carrying out the research in certain areas of common interest to ExxonMobil and state of Qatar. These include the environmental management research and the LNG safety research which will be applicable to most of the leading projects in Qatar. (GE Imagination of Qatar 29)
The EMRQ (ExxonMobil Research Qatar) announced on April 11, 2010, that it will extend funding to 218million Quarterly Refund up until 2014 at the QSTP. This would include support for two research programs. One of these is Water Re-use research program of the EMRQ, which would investigate the water treating technology and thereafter focus on selection and identification of the native plant life which could clean water naturally, the water produced from the gas and oil wells. The other research that would be funded was Qatar Center for the Coastal Research which would study the coastal geology of Qatar to assist in improving the understanding of all the quality and continuity of the past carbonate reservoir rocks that were found in the Middle Eastern gas and oil fields (Entrepreneur 39).
The President of EMRQ and ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company, Stephen Greeenlee, indicated that the investments in QSTP would continue to assist the scientific foundation of the efforts of Qatar in an attempt to solve the complex environmental and energy challenges. QSTP was initially established to further a very strong research culture which expands the technological and scientific advancement, particularly in Qatar. The Executive Chairman of QSTP strongly supports the expansion of EMRQ because it shows increased commitment to geosciences and environmental research particularly in Qatar. The efforts of EMRQ are in alignment with the vision of QSTP of building a world-class center for scientific and educational excellence. (Technical Review 76)
The research director of ExxonMobil Research Qatar, Dr. James Rigby, stated that their endeavors of research complement well with the National Vision 2030 of Qatar and also its pillars of environmental, human, economic and social development. The EMRQ gave out a research report in regard to environment to the Ministry of Environment regarding the coastal water quality, especially near the Ras Laffan Industrial City and carried out environmental studies of sea grass and coral grass of Qatar.
Chapter Three: Methodology
The research of this paper was very intense and extensive so that the paper could be an essential research paper. I started by contacting the various energy suppliers to Qatar in order to have more updated information and statistics. I also studied and researched more on QSTP in order to learn more details on energy usage and alternative energy sources. I collected relevant data on wind turbines and solar panels in order to understand the cost, benefit ration and also implementation of the supplies in the QSTP (Solar Buzz 43).
The citizens of Qatar propose and hope that solar power will be able to meet the surging demand of power in Qatar. Qatar as a country is considering the building of one of the largest solar power complexes in the whole world in order to meet the rising demands. The demand is expected to rise four-fold in the next thirty years as it was reported by MEED (Middle East Economic Digest). The states of the Gulf Arab have nearly 30% of the globe’s oil reserves and nearly 8% of its own gas, although a boom in the economy which had been spurred by the record of crude prices has driven demand for water and power so drastically that most of them are preferring to use the alternative energies. (GE Imagination of Qatar 28)
Alternative energies include nuclear energy, particularly produced by Qatar. Through this utilization of alternative energy, Qatar is expected to add more than 16,260 MW of power to their national grid in the years between 2011 and 2036, which is nearly four times the current capacity of 4,200 MW. Hamza also indicated that the solar complex will have a capacity of 3,500 MW by the year 2013. They would also encompass the building of a nuclear power plant which would also save the environment. (John 2008)
I have also referred to local newspapers, media sources and also TV shows. The QSTP is investment worth $800million in the future of Qatar and a statement that is powerful and full of confidence. The QSTP is home to various researches in different fields that include energy, ICT, health sciences, environment, manufacturing and industries and almost all the member organizations have a very strong track record of research that is ground-breaking. The EMRQ is among these and it launched its initial research project in the year 2006 through evaluating potential formation and also impact of cooling sea water especially in coastal waters particularly in Ras Laffan Industrial City. The EMRQ has completed the construction and design of a 3-D visualization cube that offers a virtual reality environment for the purposes of training the employees in gas and oil processing and production. The research performed at EMRQ will assist in advancing the petroleum-based and LNG technologies and offers the support for the trainees. The President of ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company indicated that they needed to be sure that the work that they did was monitored to assure all the people that their businesses were running in well environmental sensitive manner. (GE Imagination of Qatar 34)
There are also a number of partner organizations which total to almost 21. These are Chevron, ConocoPhillips, EADS, Fuego, Hydro, iHorizons, Institut de Soudure, MEEZA, Qatar Robotic Surgery Centre, Microsoft, Qatar University Wireless Centre, Total, Shell, SMARD, Transport Research Laboratory, Tata, Virgin Health Bank, Cisco, and General Electric.
The GE Advanced Technology and Research Centres are home to two joint ventures among the Qatar Foundation and General Electric, in regards to Healthcare Information Technology for Africa and the Middle East. This specializes in the development of healthcare IT solutions which are adapted to the local needs, the Healthcare Technology Research and Development. This focuses on expansion and acceleration of the GE’s research and development programs in the molecular imaging and digital x-ray technology. The expansion and development of the research facilities is one exciting step towards the future of Qatar. The work of research is important to the future prosperity and effectiveness of the energy industries and also that of the entire economy. (Solar Buzz 67)
The QSTP provides services and infrastructure designed to support the daily business needs. These are advanced in data and voice infrastructure; visitor reception and helpdesk; meeting rooms with the expanded audio-visual systems with areas for exhibitions; spacious offices which are rentable for only short periods; access and security control with full facilities management; and the document and secretarial production services. (Qatar Foundation 26)
There is also a free zone where the QSTP acts as a free-trade zone which makes it an attractive location for the companies that are technology-based. The benefits are many, which include the total 100% foreign ownership; incorporation of a local company or operate as a component of foreign company; no taxes; trade without any local sponsor or agent; hire outsider employees; unrestricted repatriation of profits and capital; and duty-free import of services and goods (GE Imagination of Qatar 56).
Furthermore, there is a benefit of access to research institutes because the QSTP is located within the vicinity of the top-ranked global universities at Education City in Doha. Universities in Qatar have set standards for top ranked universities around the world. There are also support programs in QSTP. These include the New Enterprise Fund, located in QSTP, which offers capital for the technology of start-up companies. A mentoring program which offers leaders of start-up companies intensive one-on-one guidance from experienced builders of the businesses of technology. An Investor Readiness Program, located at QSTP, assists entrepreneurs by giving them the skills needed to prepare the winning investment proposals and business plans to raise the needed capital. (GE Imagination of Qatar 76)
Chapter Four: Findings
The Qatar Foundation entered into the solar energy sector by way of creating joint venture Company which produced solar grade polysilicon, as an important component of the solar panels. The Qatar Foundation will have excess shareholding in QST (Qatar Solar Technologies) a joint venture with SolarWorld AG. SolarWorld AG is one of the largest solar companies in the entire world. Its headquarters are in Bonn, Germany.
The ownership stake of Qatar Foundation will be 70% whereas that of the SolarWorld was to be 29% and the other one percent was left at the hands of Qatar Development Bank. The QST will extend a new plant at the Ras Laffan Industrial City which would serve as the first operational polysilicon plant in the entire region. This plant is expected to produce more than 3,500 tons per year and has been designed with the upcoming expansion; this would in turn enable increase of production capacity. (Solar Buzz 76)
The first investment in the QST is valued at more than 500 million USD and it offers employment opportunities for hundreds of people in a broad range of all fields. The first investment of the Qatar Foundation in the renewable alternative energy sector supported their strategic objectives of diversifying the economy of Qatar. It also drives high-technology development and research in Qatar and promotes the financial sustainability of the Foundation. By investing afresh in renewable and alternative energy shows the evidence of the positive commitment that the Foundation and the state of Qatar have in addressing the urgent environmental concerns of today. (GE Imagination of Qatar 88)
The technology and process equipment of producing polysilicon will be provided by the leading German solar company Centrotherm Photovoltaics. This Company specializes in the provision of main services and equipment for the solar industry. This particular contract was given immediately after the announcement of the joint venture (GE Imagination of Qatar 89)
The solar-cell technology is known to use less silicon than the other usual multicrystalline silicon solar cells and therefore reduces costs and recommended for the Qatar community, which aims at reducing costs. There are five known solar system technologies which include passive solar heating, solar hot water, concentrating solar power systems, photovoltaic systems and the solar process heat. (Qatar Foundation 25)
The concentrating solar power systems
The current power plants are known to use the fossil fuels in heating water to a boiling point. Thereafter the steam from this boiling water is known to rotate a big turbine to activate the generator to produces enough electricity and this is similar to what is used in the portable gas generators. The solar power utilization is known to take advantage of the natural sun for a source of heat. There are three types of concentrating solar power systems: power tower, parabolic-trough, and dish or engine. All these utilize their own methods in order to drive the generators. (GE Imagination of Qatar 89)
The parabolic-trough systems often concentrate the energy from the sun through curved (U-shaped), long rectangular mirrors. These mirrors are always tilted at a specific angle towards the sun and they focus on sunlight with a straight pipe which is installed at the center of the entire trough. These help in heating the oil which flows through the installed pipe. The heated hot oil is used to boil the water which as a result drives the generator. The dish/engine system on the other hand utilizes a dish that is mirrored which is similar to a big satellite dish. The surface which is shaped as a dish concentrates after collecting the heat from the sun onto the desired receiver. It then absorbs the heat and then transfers it to some fluid against a turbine or piston in order to produce the desired electricity. (Solar Buzz 79)
The power tower system utilizes a big field of mirrors to focus the sunlight onto the uppermost part of an installed tower which holds the receiver. This heats the molten salt that flows through the entire receiver. The heat of the salt is utilized in generating adequate electricity through the conventional steam generator. The molten salt is known to retain the heat very efficiently and can even be stored for a number of days before it is totally converted into usable electricity. Solar energy is stored for the cloudy days or also for moments after sunset. (Qatar Foundation 33)
Passive solar heating
This technology type take full advantage of the available natural sunlight for the purposes of passive heating and internal illumination and is applied to buildings that are designed for it. It exercises similar technology with that of the green house. The south side buildings naturally receive most of the sunlight. These buildings are designed to have very large windows facing the southern direction for the passive solar heating. The walls and floors materials are designed to totally heat up during the day and then very slowly discharge the heat at night. These industrial applications of heat contain hundreds of arrays that are interconnected in order to form a unitary, large PV system. (GE Imagination of Qatar 98)
There are commercial solar cells that have an efficiency of 15% therefore; more than one-sixth of striking sunlight to the cell generates desired electricity. Array sizes are wholly dependent on various factors which include the sunlight amounts that are available in a certain location and to the requirements of the customer. Modules of the array consist of the majority of the PV system. There are also multitudes of electrical connections, power-conditioning equipment, mounting hardware, and finally batteries which are able to store u the solar energy for usage when there is inadequate sunlight. (Solar Buzz 92)
Solar hot water
The main purpose of this solar hot water is to offer a way to heat water for all residential and commercial uses. The theory used is based on a shallow lake, where water is heated up by the scorching sun which is able to heat bottom part of the lake and hence the heat is retained by the water. In this case, heaters are both storage tanks and solar collectors. These solar collectors are mostly flat plates that are mounted on the top part of the roof, with a flat, thin rectangular box which has a cover that is transparent in order to face the sun. These boxes should contain very small tubes that are filled with antifreeze or water which is then heated. (GE Imagination of Qatar 108)
These tubes in turn are attached to the absorber plate which is painted black in order to absorb maximum heat. When heat is built up in the installed collectors, it is therefore transmitted to the fluids which pass through the tubes. These tubes feed a big storage tank that holds the hot liquid. It can sometimes be a modified water heater which is well-insulated and typically large. The systems that use water are then used for various usages that require hot water. Again the systems that use fluids other than just water have an installed heat exchanger which is used to convert the available heat to functional hot water. The solar water heating systems could be passive or active, although the most common is the active type. Different pumps transfer the liquid between the storage tank and the collector in the active types, whereas the passive types utilize the gravity and the water is designed to circulate naturally when it is being heated. (Solar Buzz 94)
Solar process heat
There are solar ventilation systems which utilize processed heat and are intended to offer very large quantities of space of hot water heating for all the nonresidential buildings. The typical system is known to include the solar collectors which are known to work along with some pumps, large storage tanks and a heat exchanger. There are of two types: a parabolic-trough collector and an evacuated-tube collector. The evacuated-tube collector is known to be a shallow box that is full of various glasses, double-walled tubes and reflectors for heating the fluid that is inside the tubes.
A large vacuum is present in between the walls and this helps to insulate the inner tubes that hold the excess heat. On the other hand the parabolic troughs are curved (U-shaped), long rectangular mirrors that are then tilted in order to focus the sunlight to a tube that runs down the middle of the entire trough. As a result, the fluid in the tube is then heated. (GE Imagination of Qatar 112)
The two types may utilize the transpired collectors that comprise of a black, thin metal panel which is mounted on the wall that faces the southern direction in order to absorb the heat from the sun. Air is allowed to pass through many small holes present in the panel and the space that is left behind the punctured wall permits the air streams from the holes to merge together. The air that is heated is drawn out from the space at the top into the system of ventilation. This type of system can also be utilized for cooling of buildings, through the use of solar heat as a source of energy. The utilization of the solar absorption coolers includes desiccant cooling that utilizes the available energy to the power cooling systems. (Qatar Foundation 36)
Chapter Five: Conclusion and recommendations
Financial analysis of the total benefits of renewable energy to the user is very important in validating the actual advantages. There is a strong desire and need to advance and improve the environment through decrease of coal generated electricity although this needs and requires strong financial incentives. The anticipation of high costs especially for the coal provided electricity is very difficult to predict, although when there is pressure to lower coal emissions the linked costs are always passed to the customers. Investing in renewable and alternative energy would lead to cost containment which can be attained before making possible escalations in conventional coal energies. It is also very advisable to fund the projects of solar power because they are the initial alternative energies.