A crisis is any event that is expected to lead to unstable or uncomfortable situation, which may affect individuals, group of people or the entire nation. Crises are regarded as negative changes that happen in the security, political arena, economy, society and in the environmental affairs. They normally happen without a warning, leaving people hopeless, homeless and in some instances, lives may be lost. A shallow definition of crisis is that it is a testing time, or a time of emergency.
Crisis can also be defined in different ways. For example, Seeger defines it as a specific, abrupt and order of events that are risky hence threatening the goals and objectives of a nation, society or even individuals. From the definition, we can get some characteristics of a crisis that is crisis occurs unexpectedly. This means that one cannot know when he/she is to experience crises. Another characteristic is that they bring unbelief and also they can bring to ruin important objectives that are set. However, Venette argues that crisis is a way of changing things in case the available ones can no longer be withstood. There are instances when a call for change is necessary. However, there can be difficulties to get the transformations, and this may bring crisis when people demand by force for the changes.
Some crises are natural, while others are brought by man. When they occur, it is due to man's mistake or failure to focus on the outcomes. Crisis may become dangerous if not recognized in time. We fail to recognize crises as a result of ignorance, procrastination, and slow psychological judgments that provide us cover for our actions. At other instances, crisis occurs due to our conviction that though what we are doing is wrong, the reasons are absolutely right. For example, we might think that because we have a climatic change threat, it is good to engage in trade activities in the economic sector, which cannot save the situation since the two situations are not related. This is a bad approach towards solving the crisis, which means that we experience a crisis at national, societal and individual level due to our inability to recognize the actions that can easily lead us to crisis.
At national level, there is a possibility of threat in case of a crisis. This is because people are anxious that something bad may happen such as chaos, and a strong conviction that actions can easily lead to bad results. As stated above, national crises range from poverty, economical and environmentally related. Let us consider the poverty related national crises and its conceptual framework. It results due to low income earning, lack of employment or being underemployed. This results to lack of money to pay rent, which can lead to eviction, financial constraints and loss of medical covers as a result of failure to pay the cares. Finally, it may lead to poor health, low self esteem that results to stress. In addition, lack of employment means less relationship with working mates. When one does not relate well with the society, there is a possibility of increased depression and stress.
Another example is an economic crisis. It occurs as a result of currency depreciation due to bank crisis, which may be as a result of banks holding interest rates, giving high interest rates on loans and also inflation. Economic crisis puts nations into more crises due to rising cases of strikes and demonstrations by civil servants when people are not convinced by terms and conditions of work. Normally, this happens if there is bad governance such as dictatorship, which is associated with rising cases of corruption and money fraudulent. Economic crisis leads to more poverty crisis, environmental crisis and even personal crisis, hence leading to more poverty related crisis.
Poverty crisis leads to social evils such as rapes, murders, child labour and drug trafficking. People do such activities so as to secure employment, to earn high living standards and to reduce anxiety in their lives. There are different ways of solving economic crisis, one, the nations should have dependency on the resources they have. Some things such as irrigation and creation of job opportunities by reducing the taxes have put nations such as Japan, America, Italy and Germany at the top, as far as the economic sector is concerned (Nearing 24).
Environmental related crisis arise as a result of poor environmental management. The environment can be destroyed if there is the occurrence of natural disasters such as earth tremors, or man’s activities such as deforestation, overgrazing and mining. There are three categories of environmentally related crisis; environmental disasters, natural disasters and endangered species crisis. Crisis pertaining to environmental disaster occurs due to human related activities and should not be termed as a natural catastrophe. In this case, man's activities have destroyed the ecosystem, which has lead to disasters and long lasting repercussions. It includes events such as death of people and also severe interruption of human life that can force migration. On the other hand, natural disaster is as a result of nature, and we can do nothing to evade them. They include things such as the occurrence of volcanoes, earthquakes and sliding of lands. An excellent example is of Japan where there was tsunami that left so many people dead. Such crisis disrupts the goals and objective of a nation, once they strike. Human activities such as farming, trading and doing business abroad are also affected. The resulting negative effects depend on the concentration of population in a certain region.
Nations have come up with disaster management bodies, which deal with taking care of the victims in case of occurrence of a disaster. There are organizations that care in case of worse natural disasters. Such bodies include the Red Cross, UNHCR that fights for rights of children amongst others.
Finally, an endangered species crisis is a situation where there is a possible loss of certain species of an animal or organism due to environmental changes. Some bodies have been put to conserve the endangered species, such as the International Union for Conservation of Nature that finds remedies to the threatening environmental problems. This is one way of protecting the endangered species, among other methods that have been placed by different nations.
Moreover, nations are in crisis because of their different methods of pursuing their interests. They pursue their goals and objectives by blinding themselves on the repercussions to other nations. A good example is that one of wars happening in countries like Libya. This war is facilitated by availability of cheap weapons from the developed countries such as Japan, which achieves its goals.
This example leads to international crisis. International crisis occur if there are disagreements among countries that have agreed on something, to attain a common objective. International crisis are experienced at national levels, where nations can react by providing their own means of getting services offered by international bodies. This leads to breakage of set rules, and failure to achieve the objectives together as an international body. Basically, the individual, societal and national security is at a threat in many countries. This is because of international crises that have been reflected in the national levels.
In addition to this, there is another form of crisis that leads to all other crisis, that is, personal crisis. Personal crisis ranges from finances, long time illness or even medical emergencies. They also circulate within a person's day to day life hence interfering with the individual goals. Personal crisis may lead to indulgence in alcoholism, social vices such as prostitution and other life altering actions. When this occurs to individuals, there is the possible outcome of national crisis since citizens become irresponsible to their lives. The only way to solve this probe by nations is to lay strategies of high jacking situations that may lead to personal crisis. This is taking care of citizens' interests, a way that would save a nations beauty. Such methods have been put in place. In Japan, for example, there are rehabilitation centers that accommodate those who were addicted to drugs. They are remodeled in this centers so as their former behaviors could be retrieved. There are other forms of crisis such as ecological, energy and mid-life crisis. All these have a source which when there is a need for being solved, they can be solved.
In conclusion, all forms of crisis puts a nation at a standstill as far as development is concerned. Therefore, a conceptual framework is required. The conceptual framework is a way of outlining a possible route of actions or to suggest excellent approach to a thinking or action. It entails finding possible causes and ways of handling crisis. A research can also be done to find immense ways. Nations have different ways of a conceptual framework, such as working of hypothesis, giving descriptive categories, practical ideal types, models of operational research and formal hypothesis, all of which are linked to certain research intentions such as making of good decisions, explaining situations or facts, predicting amongst others.