Sydney in Australia has experienced high levels of unemployment especially in mid-western suburbs found stretching along the southern coast covering Parramatta River. Auburn also experiences high unemployment rates reaching up to 11.5 % in 2010. However northern beaches of Sydney have lowest levels of unemployment at a rate of 1.4%. Spatial patterns are evident in the way distribution of unemployment rates are observed in Sydney especially between the highest unemployed parts and the lowly unemployed parts. Apart from unemployment rates sharing spatial trends in Sydney, education and access to social amenities like health, clean water and electricity are hypothesized in this study to share a spatial pattern (Urban Research Centre 2008).
The unevenness in not only employment opportunities but also in education sector and access to social welfare amenities can be explained by a set of socio-economic combinations. The disparity is witnessed both across the metropolitan cities and within cities themselves. Sydney is considered to be the leading city with this socio-economic unevenness in many factors like employment, education and access to social amenities. Academic research within cities in Australia has caused the socio-economic advantages and disadvantages. This phenomenon is mostly explained by the fault lines that exist in these sectors of the economy and contributes a lot more than just advantages and disadvantages. This is mostly witnessed when the distinction is made among seven regions divided into two groups. The first three composes of advantaged groups comprising of 31 newly economy, 37 gentrifying advantaged localities and finally 49 middle class suburban advantaged localities (Baum & Stimson 2005, p. 23).
On the extreme end of disadvantaged categories, there are four which includes; 35 peri-urban localities, 37 old economy localities, 46 working class battler localities and 66 battling family and mortgage stress localities which are all highly disadvantages. The fault line is well understood due to the socio-economic unevenness across the seven groups. These disparities can be attributed by several factors. First the level of income is unevenly distributed both among individuals and regions especially in Sydney as well other metropolitan cities in Australia. The fluctuating levels of permanent levels of employment have greatly contributed to the same disparity. The job market is dominated by a few educated professionals leaving a lot of vulnerable occupations unable to cater for their basic needs. The industrial characteristics have also contributed to these spatial patterns (Randolph and Holloway 2005, p. 55).
Changes in construction, mining, agriculture distribution and transportation have also played a vital role in the fault line of advantaged and extremely disadvantaged. The unemployment patterns and labor force participation is attributed to greater cause of disparities. The number of youths participating in employment rate is extremely low as a result of low school enrolment. Labor force participation rate of the total population has also been below 65% for several years hence many households are unable to meet their basic needs. With decreasing levels of labor force participation, the part time opportunities has over the years remained at very low levels below 30% as well hence exacerbating the unevenness in socio-economic welfare indicators. Family set up has also been experiencing challenges with non-earners, single parent and age dependency on the rise constraining the little resources especially among the four categories of extremely disadvantaged localities (O’Connor, Stimson and Daly 2001, p. 45).
The disparities in the bestowment of natural resources like oil and minerals. The development of other indicators like educational facilities have also offered the three advantaged regions in socio-economic frontier therefore leaving the other localities in extreme poverty and underdeveloped state, The spatial patterns witnessed in the unemployment sector in Sydney is likely to be entrenched more and more in future. This trend is observed especially when the unemployment rate reached 11.5% in Auburn up with 2.9% increase from 2009. This rate was increasingly observed from the last population census. The socio-economic disparities observed especially in Sydney proves the fact that, the spatial disparities and development levels especially in employment levels is likely to be more and more entrenched in the future times especially due to lack of government’s political will to implement policies and ideas to eradicate these unevenness regardless of their promises during campaign periods. This state is exacerbated further by political agenda of political leaders who use the unemployment scenario to attain their political ambitions with less emphasis on the real matters (Potter, Binns and Smith 2004, p. 87).
The unemployment rate in Australia especially in Sydney will continue to be entrenched due to unwillingness of political and economic policy makers to implement policies aimed at eradicating the menace. The spatial unevenness is also likely to be more entrenched in both social and economic frontiers due to lack of elaborate measures to curb it.