Part A: Teachers’ Monitoring Strategies
Question 1: Appropriate strategies teachers can use to monitor lesson understanding
The question, at this point, is the ways used by teachers to check for understanding of students throughout the lesson. In the ELL class,teachers often employ several strategies to monitor the progress of the student. In classroom instruction, as seen in the video, portfolios are employed in a comparable manner, although the portfolio contents may represent formal products, work in progress as well as ratings or other affirmation of the student’s knowledge relative to specific objectives (Reynolds, 2002). Therefore, the strategies used by teachers, as seen in the video include Performance monitoring, portfolios assessments, alternative assessments and student generalizations.
Portfolios and performance assessment are complementary strategies for reviewing student academic progress and language development. The two strategies represent continuous assessment of the progress of students, authentic assessment, possibilities for integrating instruction with assessment, assessment of learning processes, as well as a collaborative way to assessment that enables both students and teachers to interact in the learning/teaching process.
Alternative assessment is used to find out what a student can do or knows that is intended to depict growth and inform instruction. It is authentic as it relies on activities that depict real growth toward instructional objectives and reflect tasks learned in classrooms and those acquired in real-life settings. With student generalizations, teachers should work together with their colleagues, obtain feedback, and establish whether the students are using the approach in other areas of learning in a successful manner.
Question 2: An effective monitoring system for students encountering difficulties
A Recognition and Response System (RRS)
The RRS system is premised on the fact that teachers and parents can learn to identify vital early precautionary signs that a student is not be learning as expected and to act in response in a manner that constructively impacts a student’s school process (Sternberg & Subotnik, 2006). In this system of recognizing and responding, there is restricted dependence on formal process of diagnosing and labeling. In its place, the RRS system emphasizes an approach that is systematic to act in response to early learning challenges that entails evaluating the general value of the experiences of learning for all students and making modifications on programs, providing proper supports and tailoring instructional strategies for students who struggle to learn. Deiner (2013) asserts that the RRS system encompasses four key aspects: an intervention hierarchy; screening, evaluation, and progress monitoring; research-based instruction, focused interventions and curriculum; and a coordinated process of solving the problem for making decisions.
In a nutshell, an intervention hierarchy signifies increasing levels of instruction intensity and intervention that match directly with needs of students for support. An integrated evaluation plan relies on multiple sources of information and methods that can be employed to identify the student meeting vital benchmarks, students in the development process of learning skills, and student who are not making sufficient progress.
With research-based program, focused interventions and instruction, the overarching objective of the system is for instructors to utilize assessment as an element of an incorporated instructional system to make developments in the overall early childhood programs and to strategize specific interventions for kids who require extra supports.
Finally, with the collaborative process of solving problems for making decisions, the key to solving learning problems is the employment of assessments to make informed decisions, therefore, establishing a dynamic connection between the components of recognition and response.
B: Responses to Prompts
Response 1: Observation and Description: The procedure for self assessment
The procedure employed in the video include the brainstorming aspect, student and teacher negotiate criteria and employment of the student language to co-develop standards, all taking place at the initial stage. The second stage entails showing of examples and using the criteria generated, students practice classifying the examples. At this stage, teachers have the students write their introductions to their personal stories. When completed they perform a self-evaluation with the utilization of the class-developed rubric. After all these, the students then give the feedback on their self-evaluations. Lastly, the teacher helped students develop productive action plans and goals. The specific steps that guided this stage were as follows: students identified weaknesses/strengths based on comparative data, students generated goals, and the teacher then guided learners to develop specific actions in line with their goals. In a nutshell, student self-assessment commences with setting learning targets or the goals, proceeds through the work production that aims to attain those targets, to the work assessment in order to identify if it does, in actual fact, meet the targets or goals and then, lastly, to the revising the targets that were not attained, or if they were achieved, establishing of new targets.
Response 2: Analysis, Exploration, and Reasoning
Based on the video, a portfolio is widely employed in language learning. The versatility and flexibility of the portfolio concept makes it a valuable tool for engaging learners of all capabilities as they examine the products and process of their learning (Goldspink, Winter, & Foster, n.d). Videotaping, on the other hand, is an effective way to record the performance of students. In the video, after the performance review by the students, they understood their weaknesses and strengths in their performance. This made them improve in their performances as time went by. Furthermore, after the treatment of portfolios and self-monitoring, the performance at English speaking was enhanced, and communication apprehension was lowered.
In terms of student engagement, a learning log was used to record content knowledge and language development. As well, it enabled students to identify objectives they wanted to accomplish via learning activities. Under this, the engagement level was based on the following design:
- How I paid attention to the teacher
- I used new words in sentences
- I took notes when I listened, etc.
Response 3: Connections to Other Effective Teaching Practices
The teacher used portfolios assessments tointeract with the student self-monitoring and self-reporting procedures. Portfolios presented a convenient way to assembling the work of students, interpreting student performance evidence, and assessing the performance of students relative to instructional objectives. This method required many teachers as well as staff decisions concerning the objectives to be assessed or instructional goals. The focus was on content area skills. School staff combined performance and traditional assessment practices in order to get manifold indicators of a learner’s level of ability. Using results recorded on standardized achievement tests along with rating scales, anecdotal records, writing samples, and teacher observation checklists to assess literacy skills provided a lot of information when related to standardized test results only. In addition, having multiple indicators of the performance of students enabled teachers to cross-check one information type against another.
Response 4: Evaluation
Alternative strategy was effective. It was found that the goal-setting students attained higher learning outcomes when related to the non goal-setting group. That is the achievement of the self-monitoring group was higher learning outcomes when compared to the non self-monitoring group of students. The thinking process used to complete this evaluation was critical thinking process. I started out with the knowledge of issue under discussion, followed by comprehension, interrogated the applicability, analyzed the issue under discussion, synthesized and evaluated the achievement of goals and objectives.
Response 5: Recommendations: Self-report measures
Self-report measures have been employed by a good number of scholars to evaluate the affective, cognitive and behavioral task engagement aspects (Sternberg & Subotnik, 2006). Items linking to the cognitive engagement aspects often ask learners to report on factors like their distraction versus attention during class, the mental effort expended on such tasks ( for instance, to integrate previous knowledge with new ideas), and task persistence ( for instance, responses to perceived failures to understand the course material). With this alternative, students can as well be requested to report on their levels of response during class time (for instance, making verbal responses in group discussions, engaging in non-academic social interactions and looking for distractions) as an aspect of behavioral task engagement (Reynolds, 2002). On the other hand, affective engagement questions in general ask learners to rate their interest in as well as emotional responses to tasks of learning on indices like choice of activities (for instance, selection of less challenging tasks versus more challenging ones), the desire to be acquainted with more regarding particular topics, as well as feelings of stimulation in beginning new tasks.
Response 6: aligning a personal teaching standard with the observed procedure of self-reporting and self-monitoring: Commitment to students
There is proof in the video where the teacher creates a learning environment that guides, encourages, and supports self-improvement and students’ self-monitoring of behavior. For instance, the teacher engages students in record-keeping for self-monitoring and self-assessment. The provision of opportunities for learners to practice self-monitoring of learning is evidenced. Lastly, provision of guidance and time for learners to express their frustrations, reflect on their progress, and think about how they can be more successful is also evidenced.