Various educational challenges affect the education system. The relationship between the education system and culture of the community in which the system is used is of great significance. Public education is a result of the culture of the society. Consequently, for an educational challenge to thrive, it has to have a common goal as the desired cultural orientation. The challenge has reform towards the ideology advocated by the majority. The educational system determines the public’s organization such as the case of the American education where equal opportunity for students is the acceptable primary cultural guide. Social values, ethnic and racial descent are insignificant in determining an individual student’s performance. For an educational challenge to succeed in such an institution, its ideologies must align to the general culture of the society in which the institution is set. The most prominent reason for the challenges’ failure is the fact that most of them are not equipped with the necessary cultural orientation. In addition, the challenge must be parallel to the organizational norms of the education institution to gain acceptance.

Afro-centrism seeks to focus the school curricula on the African heritage of the black people. Furthermore, the challenge aims to disengage the school curricula from the European cultural influence and include a significant role for the African culture. Although the challenge seeks the recognition of the positive aspect of the African history, it does not support the liberal pluralist cultural orientation. The decentralization does not include the fair treatment of all cultures in the suggested reforms, but strives for the recognition of the African culture. This constitutes the major difference between multiculturalism and afro-centrism in public education. To convince the officials in the educational system in Atlanta that afro-centrism has positive goals the challengers argued that the change of the schooling system’s cultural orientation would develop more interest in the African-American students. However, the incorporation of the African culture in Atlanta had a descending level of momentum from the beginning to the end. This eventually gave a desired mild result devoid of acute cultural polarization.

In New York, the afro-centric challenge took a different turn since it faced opposition from the society. The opposition was a consequence of the cultural orientation of the majority of the state’s citizens. Furthermore, the afro-centric reforms failed to depict the characteristics of a radical approach, but critics cited political interests as the greater proportion of the driving force.

In Washington, DC, the afro-centric challenge did not initiate with a remarkable momentum. The challenge assumed a radical approach that failed to metamorphose to a widespread moderated reform, and remained stagnated as a small radical movement within a single institution.

The level of the afro-centric challenge success depended on the education institution’s location with different performances between the state based education system and the local education system. Moreover, there were loopholes in the existing rules on the testing methods in the American education system. The national testing regime has its basis on skills that are not localized to any culture or region, and teachers who did not favor the new system used this basis to avoid the full implementation of the afro-centric agenda. On the other hand, the mass media played a significant role in the implementation of the afro-centric reforms, and the level of success of the afro-centric campaign partly depended on it.

Afro-centric campaign has achieved different levels of success due to the varying support in different parts of the country. Higher level of success is evident in areas where the reforms resonate with the cultural alignment of the society in which the school is set as in the case of Atlanta. Other factors are of minimal significance in the reforms’ formulation and implementation.

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