Section 05 – Lecture: Policy Period Seven:  Self-Determination (1960-Present)

28. According to the Lecture:  The American Indian Religious Freedom Act (1978) sorted out the issues of the free exercise of religion among the tribes, protecting and preserving the inherent right of the freedom to express and exercise traditional beliefs.  Unfortunately, it did nothing to address the issues of tribal members possessing otherwise controlled items such as;

        a.   Eagle feathers.

      b.   Peyote.

      c.   Hemp.

      d.   None of the above.  It addressed all of these issues.

33. According to the Lecture:  In the 1970’s, the militant group AIM moved onto the Sioux reservation and       confronted agents of the FBI at Wounded Knee, the site of a massacre in the 1890’s.  The resulting violence resulted in the death of several dozen Indians, and two FBI agents.  While nobody has ever been held responsible for the deaths of the Indians;

      a.   Leonard Peltier is serving two life sentences for the deaths of the FBI agents.

      b.   Dennis Banks is serving time in prison for leading Indians in a riot.

        c.   Russell Means was pardoned by California Governor Jerry Brown for his part in the violence.

     d.   John Trudell was jailed for Disorderly Conduct for ignoring instructions to leave the courthouse during       Leonard's trial.

34. According to the Lecture:  Leonard Peltier is generally considered to be a political prisoner, and;

        a.   will certainly die in prison.

      b.   his best chance to get out would be if he were pardoned by President Obama.

      c.   he may be paroled in 2020.

      d.   he may be granted a new trial after the Presidential Election.

35. According to the Lecture:  The Alcatraz Occupation was a seminal moment in American Indian political movements because it made the tribes realize they would have more power if;

      a.   they separated and complained directly to their local governors, rather than as one national voice       appealing to the federal government.

      b.   they combined their efforts as one national voice to appeal to the federal government.        

      c.   they rejected white society and returned to their native roots.

      d.   they rejected the silly effort to remain "native" and simply assimilated into white society.

Section 10 – Lecture: Indian Healing Rituals

67. According to the Lecture:  The Ghost Dance was made popular by a Northern Paiute called Wovoka.  Which of the following is false?

      a.   this ceremony involved 3 days of dancing and singing.

      b.   this ceremony involved praying to dead ancestors.

      c.   this ceremony was conducted to the point of exhaustion and collapse.

      d.   this ceremony was intended to help the people accept the inevitability of losing the land and one’s culture.

68. According to the Lecture:  Sacred pipes are common among many tribes.  Which of the following is false?

      a.   many tribes think of the fire in a pipe as the same as the fire in the Sun, which is the source of all life.

      b.   pipes could be made for a variety of purposes, including religious ceremonies or family gatherings.

      c.   some pipes were ceremonial, and were never intended to be smoked.

        d.   the most important traditional use was the “Peace Pipe”.

69. According to the Lecture:  Many tribes have ceremonies for purification, including sacred sweats.  Which of the following is false?

      a.   sweats sometimes use smoke, while others use steam from hot rocks dropped into water.

      b.   hunters would steam themselves to remove the smell of a meat-eater.

      c.   some sweats were used to cure physical or emotional ills.

        d.   women and men were allowed to use the sweats together, with no separation of the sexes.

70. According to the Lecture:  The Vision Quest is the attempt to obtain direct communication with the spirit world in order to reveal the purpose or direction of one’s life through struggle or journey.  Which of the following is false?

      a.   the vision quest could be very brutal, requiring painful physical exursion.

      b.   the vision quest could take months or years, and is not for the faint of heart.

      c.   the demands of the vision quest can sometimes result in the death of the follower.

      d.   sometimes the death of the follower is the intended result, because it is thought to be the will of the       Creator.

71. According to the Lecture:  Shamanistic beliefs among some tribes include the use of holy men and women       who lead the people in their ceremonies.  Which of the following is false?

      a.   signs of mourning may including singeing of hair and smearing of ashes on the body.

      b.   humiliation may be used to rid the person of pride, having old women and children whip or beat them.

      c.   story telling may be used as a rite of passage, requiring the follower to memorize retell a story correctly.

      d.   In every case the follower must be convinced that he does not have the free will to decide whether or not to continue.

72. According to the Lecture:  The Sun Dance is conducted as a prayer for life, renewal, or as thanksgiving.  Which of the following is false?

      a.   it can be a dance to pray for relatives or friends, or to find one’s place in the world. 

      b.   if the dance is not performed each year, the people would lose touch with the Creator.

      c.   if the people lose touch with the Creator, then the earth will slowly die, and lose the ability to regenerate each Spring. 

      d.   Most tribes believe that the precise steps of this dance are unimportant – what matters is the intention to honor the past.

73. According to the Lecture:  Smudging of ashes onto the skin and hair is common for many reasons.  Which of the following is false?

      a.   Bundles of sage, tobacco and sweet grass are burned as incense, and the ashes are smeared on the face and body. 

        b.   Smoke from these bundles is waived over the person with eagle feather fans. 

      c.   Smoke carried on the wings of an eagle is believed to travel straight to the Creator. 

      d.   Cannabis is sometimes smoked in order to create the sacred ash.

74. According to the Lecture:  The Winter Dance signifies the renewal of the earth.  It is performed for 4 days       from morning until dark, and then the dancers may rest.  Often it grows larger each day, involving a family on the first day, adding friends for the second, other relatives for the third, and then involving the entire clan on the fourth.  It is believed that the ceremony encourages the creator to send the winter, beginning with rain, then wind, then snow, then ice.  Which of the following is false?

      a.   winter represents the death of the earth.

      b.   spring represents the rebirth of the earth.

      c.   the earth must be renewed each year in order for the seasons to be blessed. 

      d.   If the snow comes before the rain, this means that the message was rejected.

75. According to the Lecture:  Most tribes believe in sacred objects.  Which of the following is false?

      a.   man-make things can be sacred, such as medicine shields and medicine wheels.

      b.   tobacco and sage bundles can be part of sacred ceremonies.

      c.   roasted pine nuts, representing the seeds of life, can be held sacred.

      d.   if an animals has a sacred spirit, this means that it cannot be hunted or eaten.

Section 11 – Lecture: AIM: Indian Militancy

76. According to the Lecture:  The American Indian Movement (AIM) was formed;

      a.   in Minnesota, in response to the government Relocation program.

      b.   in Arizona, after racist attacks on Indians in the cities.

      c.   at Alcatraz, after meeting with Richard Oakes.

      d.   after contact with the West Coast group, the Black Panther Party.

77. According to the Lecture:  AIM still exists today, though the group is deemed;

      a.   peaceful and nonviolent, and is now more concerned with International affairs.

      b.   politically relevant, and is now heavily involved with presidential politics.

      c.   less relevant, and is now more concerned with tribal politics.

      d.   violent and extreme, and therefore has fallen into fringe status.    

79. According to the Lecture:  Which of the following individuals was never a leader in AIM?

      a.   Dennis Banks

      b.   Russell Means

      c.   John Trudell

      d.   Ward Churchill

81. According to the Lecture:  AIM led a march on Washington, known as the Trail of Broken Treaties, during which the Bureau of Indian Affairs building was occupied, and largely trashed.  This action was much in keeping with the actions of the SDS, which was protesting on college campuses across the nation.  The dominant society often looked upon these actions with sympathy, since it was their own children   committing these acts.  Most people viewed the actions of AIM;

      a.   in the same way.

      b.   in a similar, but less accepting way.

      c.   in a dissimilar way, because these were people from outside the state.

      d.   in a completely different way, because these were the dark skinned "other".

82. According to the Lecture:  AIM leaders Dennis Banks and Russell Means were imprisoned as a result of the riot that ensued when they insisted the District Attorney change murder charges for the death of an Indian from Involuntary Manslaughter to First Degree Murder. 

      a.   Banks was arrested, and Means sought sanctuary in California under the protection of governor Jerry Brown.

      b.   Banks and Means were arrested, but both escaped and fled to the reservation.

      c.   Banks and Means were arrested, but were released after an evidentiary hearing.

      d.   none of the above.  Banks and Means were never arrested.

83. According to the Lecture:  At the height of AIM’s national campaign, the majority of their leaders had been       either charged or convicted of serious crimes.  This served to deflate their membership, and in 1977 the group disbanded.

      a.   True.

      b.   Yes, but they reformed into several newer groups.

      c.   Yes and no.  They are still around, but smaller.

      d.   False.  The group never disbanded.

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