The main objective of this article was to determine whether using “a daily motivational quiz” can assist in increasing the students’ attendance, preparation and participation. In specific, the researchers were dealing with an introductory accounting course, which, as they claimed, has a high number of students who either fail or withdraw from the course. According to the article, teaching at this course is extremely challenging and frustrating. To address the challenges faced in teaching this course, the researchers instituted the use of a daily quiz in their introductory accounting courses. In specific, the motivational quizzes were used as a mechanism to motivate students to prepare for classes by reading the assigned textbook material, to attend class on time and to participate in class discussions and activities. Data was collected to determine whether this research is meeting its intended objective.

The empirical data collected confirmed that daily quiz is an effective tool for increasing the introductory accounting students’ punctual attendance, participation and preparation. Of the three variables, students’ participation increased with a big margin, as compared to when the daily quiz was not used. The feedback from the students affirmed that the technique of using motivational daily quiz propelled students to keep up with the assigned readings and helped them learn the course material. In addition, this technique reduced the failure rate in accounting introductory course. According to the authors, this technique is in line with the new undergraduate education paradigm, in which the students are supposed not to attend classes in order to have enough knowledge, but rather to actively engage in the learning process. In conclusion, the authors have managed to sufficiently address the significance of daily quiz by increasing the three variables they were interested in through the certain methods and procedures used.

Article Main Critique

The article follows the typical structure, although there were some sections which were not clearly indicated, such as results section, discussion section, and methods and procedures section. The first section of the article, as usual, is the abstract, which has provided a comprehensive summary of the whole article. Any reader can understand the concepts presented in the whole article after only reading the abstract alone. The authors have introduced their topic in the abstract, as well as the main objectives of their study. Finally, they have indicated how they carried out the study, and their conclusive comments are also indicated in the abstract. The proper structure of the abstract facilitates understanding of the subject matter of the article.

The article has clearly traced the challenges faced by introductory accounting class instructors in its introduction section. This section shows that the extent to which accounting classes use daily quiz is unclear. That possibly gave a push for this research to be carried out. This section also explains clearly why introductory accounting courses are faced by high fail and withdraw rates, citing that these courses are normally taken by all business major students, some of which are not major in accounting. Thus, many of the students show little ambition other than the course survivals with a passing grade. Another challenge that has been described in the introduction and that that plays a major role in setting the context of the research is the paradigm shift. This section has indicated how the learning system is shifting form ‘providing learning’ to ‘producing learning’, which requires students to have a wide range of certain skills. This fact sets the context of the research, whereby daily quizzes can equip students with expanded skills. In other words, the introduction section helps the reader to understand why the research was conducted.

The literature review section provides an overview of work done previously, which gives the required background for this research purposes. This section concentrates on various issues related to the students’ punctual attendance, participation and preparation. Literature review begins with a thorough coverage of introductory accounting course problems and topics, thus setting the context of this study. Several researchers who are identified in the article have expressed different poinst of view concerning the subject matter.

The language used in this article is very simple, without jargonisms, and this assists readers in understanding the essence of the study. The terms used in the article are very clear, and they do not require any elaboration to understand their meaning. The description of the study in a simple language facilitates the understanding of the subject matter of the article.The authors of this article have not directly identified the limitations and strengths of the existing studies. However, analysing the article critically, one can realize that there are some limitations of the existing studies. For instance, the existing studies do no align with the current pedagogy, which emphasizes on conceptual knowledge rather than on the computational one. The existing studies also are indicated as the ones that have the problems facing introductory accounting courses identified, but no solution offered. 

The analyzed study has adopted a critical perspective, since the authors have considered arguments and evidences of other researchers and contributed their own solution to the analyzed subject. They have clearly assessed the relevance and usefulness of their suggestions to the study through the experiments they performed. They have weighed both sides, specifically whether their suggestions are contributing positively or negatively to the subject matter, by analysing positive and negative responses they received from the participants of quizzes. The study does not have any oversights since it has analysed both sides. That is, the study compares the results of the students who were using daily quiz and those who were not. The sample size used in the study is large enough to draw a valid conclusion. In fact, the research was carried during a long span of time (5 years), with different kinds of students making it even more reliable.

The methods and procedures used to conduct this research were reliable, since they involved providing empirical evidences on students’ perceptions, course failure rates, and instructor and course evaluations. The methods are well-explained, making it easier for readers to understand how the research was conducted. In addition, all the details concerning the subjects which were used in this research are given. The authors of the article have described the methods and procedures very well, giving each and every detail of the procedures which were carried out in the experiment.

Data gathering and analysis techniques used in the experiment are transparent and clear. The authors have described different means that were used to collect the data. Data sets presented in the tables are clear, and all variables are well-labelled. The data analysed in this study is related to other studies. For instance, the study found that 29% of students who were not using daily quiz read the assigned textbook before attending the class; this was consistent to a study conducted earlier that indicated 33%. The results of the study are well-analysed, using different types of analysis. Statistical analysis was used to display the quantitative data of the research, and this definitely helps the readers to comprehend the results without any assistance. Statistical tests are also used in the article to assist the authors in their quantitative decisions. Use of tables to illustrate the description of the results makes it easier to understand them.

The context of this study is presented in a comprehensive manner, and every reader would agree with the point that the authors have provided a sufficient amount of information required to validate their argument. Anyone reading this article will learn about the importance of motivational daily quiz in introductory accounting courses. The writing style employed is clear and one can easily notice that the Harvard writing style is used. In-text citation of primary and secondary sources, as well as the bibliography section is also done properly, showing the reliability of the research. The citations and the reference list provided give the readers an opportunity to go back to the original studies in order to find more information about the studies reviewed in this article.

What I like in this article is its contents. It has clearly explained the essence of motivational daily quiz through the experiments performed. What I dislike in the article is its format. I am used to a format that has the following sequence: abstract, introduction, literature review, methods and procedures, results, discussion, conclusions and recommendations. This format is not employed in this paper, although its content reviews that all these sections are included, except that some of them are not indicated by names. The conclusion of this article is very strong, since it has integrated various issues highlighted in the paper. It also elaborates on how motivational daily quizzes can be used in other areas.

Research Approaches Summary

The research approaches that I have studied are four including quantitative research, qualitative research, mixed methods or pragmatic approach to research, and emancipatory or participatory approach to research. The authors of the analyzed article have chosen quantitative research approach because they wanted to establish the relationships between the motivational daily quizzes and student attendance, preparation and participation. They had to apply quantitative approach in order to move their arguments from general to specific and more valid. The two types of data collected in this research are nominal and ordinal. To make it clear, nominal data types are those which were collected on students who were subjected to daily quizzes and those who were not. In contrast, an example of ordinal data is the one where students evaluated the course and instructor using a 5-point scale.

Conclusions

In conclusion, it can be said that the article discusses the essence of implementing motivational daily quiz in introductory accounting courses. It presents several benefits of using motivational daily quizzes among students, increasing the introductory accounting students’ preparation, punctual attendance, and participation. All in all, the article is well-written, and I would recommend it to all instructors dealing with introductory accounting courses, so that they could find a way to increase productiveness of their students. The authors have presented the information properly, and it is written using simple language, making it easier for anyone interested to understand the article subject matter.

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