Introduction

Cognitive information process evaluation is a scientific method of mental study. It involves the study of the mental process of individuals, their thinking process and their capacities to remember. It also deals with the stages through which information is retrieved from the environment through seeing, hearing, experiencing or reading, its interpretation by the sensory organs, the storage in the memory and the capacity to recall the same information. Cognitive development implies the changes that take place in terms of reasoning, interpreting, calculations and remembering. According to Lunde (2009), the study is usually carried out thorough experiments, particularly on children, adolescents and old people, since it is believed that the latter are rapidly transforming. It is assumed that the above individuals are gradually changing and would give positive results if the experiments were carried out on them.

Cognitive information process evaluation is closely related to the cognitive theory which studies functions of the three parts of memory. Radach (2004) points out that the process involves receiving information, interpreting it and then sending it to memory for storage. It also encompasses the behavioral change after one receives the information. The behavioral change here might mean the action that an individual takes when one receives and interprets such information. The main aspects involved in the study are the sensory, the short-term memory and the long-term memory. It involves a series of steps outlined below.

First, there is the input process, which is concerned with the examination of the stimuli. McBride (2005) alludes that it is the sensory part of the cognitive process which allows individuals to get sets of information or arrays in the surrounding and enables them to recognize and then identify and process the arrays. This part allows human beings to get a preview of the information that is being communicated to them and organizes it for understanding. For instance, the eyes are sensory organs responsible for seeing. The information acquired is then sent through impulses to the nervous system for transmission to the brain.

The second step is the storage processes. These activities take place in the brain, and it is here that the stimuli are coded, manipulated, and stored. It involves the various parts of the brain of which each receives part of the impulses.

The last stage is the output process which is responsible for determining the necessary responses to the stimulus. It is after this step that an individual takes the appropriate action concerning the information that had been received earlier. There are two storage capacities. First is the short-term memory that allows individuals to keep and understand little quantities of information. Lunde (2009) points out that the short term cannot keep information for long periods, and an individual can only recall information that was communicated to them within a short range of time. Secondly, we have the long term, which stores information that is connected with previous knowledge. That means that the information is fully understood and can be kept and recalled for longer durations. However, this implies to information that had previously been communicated and of which the individual is fully aware.

The cognitive models have succeeded in their approach to determining human intellectual capacity. One of the principal steps it has made is that it has made it easier to obtain data and to analyze it under a sample study. The data obtained is often reliable because actual experiments are involved on a given number of individuals.

Secondly, the models have provided insights into how composite, structured gen techniques develop. This has in particular assisted the psychology and science departments in their researches over the same. As such, it has eased the experimental procedures and researches that would have been conducted by the departments.

Thirdly, the system has delivered awareness in augmenting human growth, particularly in the educational field. Through the multiple researches, they have been able to determine the processing speed and capacity of human beings and in some cases identified ways of developing the intellectual capacity of individuals.

Lastly, the data gathered during the experience can be interpreted as null. This is because in the laboratory things take place under standard conditions, as opposed to the real world where people perform duties with a given set goal. As such, the information acquired may be unreliable, given the fact that the manner of doing things in the open is not the same as that in which experiments are done.

On the other hand, the cognitive approaches have failed in the following ways. It has been assumed that the unilateral processes of stimulus inputs where one process has to be complete before the next begins and the parallel stimulus where two processes can take place simultaneously. According to Lunde (2009), it is difficult to determine whether actions take place simultaneously or in succession. This is because the schedules depend entirely on the process required to work out a task and the level of expertise in a particular task in consideration.

Lastly, the similarity adopted by the information process approach regarding the computer cognition and the human intellect is limited. This is primarily because computer cognition is determined by the rate at which it will be able to bind information and provide solutions pertaining to data it has been issued with. In addition, their cognition is determined by the microprocessor capacity of which it is assumed that they have inadequate capacity. McBride (2005) observes on the contrary that the human intellect is controlled by nocturnal feelings and emotions and human beings can do things simultaneously as opposed to the computer which conducts processes in succession.

Cognitive models can be applied in psychology in the social learning theory and the artificial intelligence studies. Lunde (2009) asserts that since the cognitive theory is scientific in nature, psychologists conduct their experiments in the laboratories to study human behaviors. During this exercise, studies are carried out on a group of individuals under standardized conditions in the laboratory. They assume that everyone being studied has the same behavior and feeling as the other. However, the process is highly criticized because it lacks the intervention by ecology. This is apparent because every human being behaves distinctly from the other. Therefore, the findings are voidable.

The cognitive theory is concerned with the study of the roles of the different parts of memory, while the behavioral theory considers learning by action. The behaviorists believe that learning is done through practice, involvement, instruction and social construction. They believe that continuous assessment of learners leads to the development of their intellectual capacity. Cognitive information process is responsible for the different aspects of instruction, and how these aspects affect the performance of learning or memory functioning.

Reinecke, Dattilio, & Freeman (2006) observe that cognitive theory and cognitive information process are similar in that they are both concerned with the mind. On the other hand, the behavioral theory is concerned with the body rather than the mind, such as involvement in activities of learning.

According to Morris, Tarassenko, & Kenward (2006), the behavioral approach believes in splitting instructions into subtasks of modules ant tutorials for learners. On the other hand, the cognitive approach deals with providing a framework around a task after which learners have to take to identify what is relevant for them to learn. According to Radach (2004), cognitive information process is, on the other hand, concerned with how these different ways of instructions will affect the learning of the students and their thinking.

The cognitive theory approach believes in coaching the learners as the mode of teaching and valuation. On the other hand, the behavioral approach trusts in continuous testing, analyzing results, revising and providing an extensive instruction. Radach (2004) observes that cognitive process information is concerned with how the different modes of teaching will determine the intellectual capacities of the learners and their actual performance.

According to (Lunde (2009), the cognitive theory approach links their motivation to intrinsic performance of learners as problem solvers and information researchers. Their motivation is inwardly built in their students. Contrary to that, the behavioral approach values external motivation, such as rewards and goal achievement as opposed to internal achievements. The cognitive process theory is concerned with how the motivation factors will change the reasoning process and the intellectual capacity of the learners.

Despite having differences, the three unite at some point. For instance, the cognitive theory and the behavioral theory both use analysis and simplification of tasks to make instruction more efficient and simple. They both engage the leaner in vigorous learning through motivation, though motivation effects may be different. Similarly, the cognitive information process, benefits from the proper information offered in terms of developing the intellectual capacity of the students. Lunde (2009) notes that both the cognitive and the behavioral theories unite with the cognitive information process in giving the right instructions to the learners for better performance and cognitive development.

In conclusion, cognitive information process has developed a largely reliable way of identifying the intellectual levels of learners. It concerns itself with determining how various processes of instruction giving influences the level of understanding of learners and how the instructions influence their performance. It also looks into the various changes in the intellectual levels, especially among infants, the adolescents and the older generation. It has fruitful relationship with the cognitive theory and the behavioral theory in terms of student learning and performance. However, the three have differences in their manners of motivation, instruction and tutoring. Cognitive process information is thus a recommended study, especially amongst the psychology students.

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