Bullying is the act of mishandling new comers in certain institution. It can also be termed as the mistreatment or harassment of students. Many of these situations happen to new students in school. Students who are newly admitted to other higher classes do not receive mistreatment in high levels as those admitted in other lower classes (Beaudoin, & Taylor 2004). Bullying can be categorized into three types: physical burying, emotional bullying, and the relational bullying. Physical bullying is when a student is threatened to be physically harmed, or when his or her peers make some threatening gestures towards him/her or even block the movement for the student. Some of the physical harm, for instance, may be spitting, hair pulling, pinching, biting, and even slapping (Coloroso, 2003). Emotional bullying, on the other hand, is the when some acts are done to a student without necessarily harming his/her body, but the student is so much affected emotionally. Some of the acts that affect the student emotionally are insulting gestures towards the student, dirty looks, insulting remarks, name calling, racial, ethnic or religious discrimination, insulting remarks related to the disability of the student.
Statement of Problem
The population of students enrolling in high school courses has been increasing. Accordingly, the level of bullying has also been increasing and become more violent. This can be attributed to the fact that the ratio of the teacher to students has increased to great values. Teachers are not able to handle the students fully. Many times the student are left free to do work on their own. The management of the school is poorly done and thus prompts the evidence of indiscipline. The economic situation in many of countries has been very poor forcing many parents to find extra time and work with no fixed hours. They have no much time left to understand the kind of school they are taking their children. In addition, many parents have less time with their children and hence unable to understand the problems they are facing. Drug abuse rate in schools has been at the peak than any other time. The performance of many students may be on down tread because of the situation in the schools. The rate of school dropout is also increasing every day.
i. What are some of the major causes of school bullying?
ii. What are the effects of school bullying on the students both the victims and those who bully them?
iii. How does bullying of students in schools affect the parents?
iv. What are the effects of bullying on the teachers?
v. What are the relationship between the bullying school and management in those schools?
vi. What are some of the measures that are undertaken by schools management to curb bullying in schools?
The general objective of the study is to establish the effects of school bullying to students, parents and teachers. The specific objectives are to establish the major causes of bullying in schools, investigate the effects of school bullying on both the victims and those that bully other students, find out the effects of bullying on parents and teachers, investigate the connection or relation between the bullying schools and management of those schools, establish undertaken measures by the schools’ management to curb bullying in schools.
Justification of the Study
Education has become core for every person. In fact, in most of the countries it is a constitutional right for every child. The factors that may hinder children from going to school must be fully prevented. Bullying in schools has been one of the major causes of increased schools drop out. Cause and effects of bullying must be established. A permanent solution to it must be established.
Significance of the Study
The study finding will be expected to contribute to the knowledge of the effects of school bullying on students, parents, and teachers. The study should also inform the government and other stakeholders about the measures that need to be taken to curb the situation. The school management will also understand the causes of high numbers of students’ drops and appropriate measures can be found.
The Scope of the Study
The study will concentrate on the effects school bullying on students, parents, and teachers. The study will be carried out in five schools where it is known that bullying of students is high. It will entail interviewing students who have been affected and some parents whose children have suffered from the bullying in school. In addition, teachers will also be interviewed. Some questions will also be given to parents, students, and teachers (Jimerson, & Furlong, 2006).
Limitations of the Study
The study will be limited to only five schools that are near to reduce the cost of the study. The students in these schools will act as representative of the whole population of students and the recommendation made to this project will be of high importance to the government and management of schools. The other limitation is that a lot of time will be spent outside classroom. Financial strain will also be experienced during the research because of the travel expenses and cost of producing the questionnaires (Babbie, 2012).
Assumptions of the Study
The study will assume that respondents will give true information concerning the effects of school bullying. In addition, the study will assume that respondents are rational people and will be able to give clear feedback. The research will also assume that the group of students, parents, and teachers will be good representatives of the whole population.
The issues of bullying have been researched by many scholars in an attempt to find who are actually involved in bullying. The act of bullying is much rampant in the United States. Bullying is the concept that has been defined in different ways and thus has always posed a challenge to researcher. The public understanding of the term ‘bully’ is quite different from the one that many of researchers or academicians understand (Babbie, 2012). Despite the different views about bullying, it is commonly agreed that bullying exposes child’s negative actions. The bullying incidents range from milder forms of abuse such as name calling, mimicking, and verbal threats to more severe forms of physical violence. The bullying also brings an aspect that there is an imbalance in the relationship. The victims perceive themselves as weaker than the person who is bullying them (Gerler, 2004). Moreover, the victims see themselves as being helpless against the person bullying them. The third kind of bullying is the relational bullying. Relational bullying is the harm to another person or causing damage to the relationship or the feeling of friendship, acceptance or group inclusion to a person. This kind of feeling is very closely related to emotional kind of feeling. Once the student‘s feeling of acceptance is affected, the student’s emotional state will also be affected. The examples of relational bullying are using negative body language or the facial expression, gossiping, spreading rumors about a certain student, and ruining a reputation that has been established for a long period of time (Gerler, 2004). Most of the students are unable to cope with bullying in school and end up leaving the school. In addition, some students are unable to tell their parents about what they are passing through in school. They fear that their parents will think that it is a pretence for lack of interest in academics. Other students fear that if their parents report the case to school authority, he/she may suffer even more.
The chapter aims at explaining the methodology that has been used in the study of the effects of school bullying on students, parents, and teachers. This chapter explains the methodological approach that has been used in identification of reliable sources of information and the collection of data. The chapter will also explain the methods and approaches that have been important in this study. This is a qualitative and exploratory inquiry. The results of the study are based on the opinions of the respondent about the effects of bullying in school. In research methodology, the focus will be on the selection of the sample of the study, methods used in data collection, testing the validity of the results, and evaluating the reliability of the results of the study (Babbie, 2012).
Selection of the sample is essential in any study whether qualitative or quantitative. The research questions are answered through correction of data and conducting subsequent analysis on the data. The recommendation of the research is relied on by various people to make decisions and, therefore, correct findings of the research are important. Selection of the correct sample of the study forms an important part, since it will determine the accuracy of the results of the study findings. The research will use probabilistic sampling method to obtain the sample of students, parents, and teachers who will be interviewed.
Unit of Analysis
In any research unit of analysis is the level in which collected data has been aggregated during subsequent data analysis. In this study, the analysis will be judgmental, since it will depend on the opinion of the researcher based on the information and data collected from the samples of students, parents, and teachers who have been affected by school bullying. This is because the study aims to establish a single perspective of the bullying’s effects on students, parents, and teachers (Gerler, 2004).
Methods of Data Analysis
After collection of the data, analysis of the data will be done simultaneously. The collected data will be qualitative. Hence, the Likert scale will be important in the conversion of this qualitative information into quantitative data. The scale provides intervals upon which the qualitative information will be converted into quantitative data. For example, applying codes or numbers to the opinions given by respondents, they will be evaluated using quantitative techniques of analysis. The quantitative technique will be used in this study to analyze the data. That will be a part of the regression model. This will be used after the conversion of qualitative information into quantitative data (Olweus, 1993).
Data collected from the study will be presented in the form of tables and charts. Regression analysis will be of paramount interest in order to establish the relationship between variables. The data will then be analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). This will enhance establishment of the effects of bullying on students, parents, and teachers (Olweus, 1993).
This research aims at maintaining proper moral and ethical standards throughout the process. The respondent will not be coerced to fill in the questionnaire or respond to the interviews. Informed consent will be taken from all the respondents. This will ensure that the findings of the study are not biased and represent the opinions of the respondent.