Fluency refers to the number of connected words that an individual can write or say at a given time. According to Wolfe-Quintero, Inagaki, & Kim (2008), accuracy of language refers to the number of mistakes that an individual makes during writing or speaking a language. Complexity is the number of different words that one uses when speaking or writing a language. Robinson (2011) asserts that students who study English as a second language (ESL) and English as a foreign language (EFL) experience numerous problems in trying to achieve fluency, accuracy, and complexity of the English language. Most of these students face problems relating to pronunciation of English words. Abushihab (2010) observes that the Arabic language has fewer sounds compared to English language and most Arab learners find it difficult to distinguish between sounds such as (b) and (v). Another key problem faced by learners is the complexity of English grammar. Students find it hard to adapt to the strict sense of grammar such as the correct use of articles a, an, and the. Lastly, ESL and EFL learners experience problems relating to vocabulary. Ellis (2003) indicates that most Arab learners find it difficult to use various vocabularies found in English language because some of them have numerous meanings that lead to confusions. The strategies used with the tasks to develop accuracy, fluency, and complexity such as planning and providing pre-instructions are significant to the learners of ESL and EFL because they facilitate fast acquisition of language. They prepare students for the process of learning the language by creating a positive attitude, which promotes faster understanding of the different issues that students are supposed to know about English language. According to Guasti (2004) task repetition is vital for students of ESL and EFL because it emphasizes on certain aspects that are imperative in the development of fluency, accuracy, and complexity. Due to task repetition students will become more familiar with different aspects that are required for the development of accuracy, fluency, and complexity of the English language hence promoting quicker understanding.
Over the years researchers have engaged in studies to describe the influence of task repetition on fluency, accuracy, and complexity. Most of these studies were aimed at establishing the link between task repetition and the time taken by a learner to achieve fluency, accuracy, and complexity. Studies indicate that task repetition is crucial for the development of these qualities by a learner.
Task repetition is vital because it provides an opportunity for learners to correct their mistakes, which is vital for the development of fluency, accuracy, and complexity. Studies indicate that task repetition enables students to repeat particular actions during a given period hence enhancing their mastery of the English language. According to Robinson (2001) language can be effectively learnt by emphasizing on its correct use and applications. Task repetition presents a crucial opportunity for learners to understand language use in different contexts.
The repetition of tasks enables students to share vital ideas relating to the use of English language in different contexts. Rahimi (2012) indicates that through repetition students get the opportunity to use language in their daily lives. Nunan (2004) observes that students share new vocabularies in the course of task repetition hence improving their complexity in the use of English language. In addition, task repletion enables learners understand how to pronounce particular English words. This is especially helpful to Arab students as it enables them differentiate between the sounds (b) and (v). Thus, task repetition boosts confidence of students in their use of English language as they continue to share vital ideas relating to their learning experience.
Description of the Study
The principal aim of the study is to examine the effect of task repetition and familiarity on the development of fluency, accuracy, and complexity in the English language among learners. A task of describing pictures was given to two students with the objective of acquiring a number of descriptions from two pairs of students. It was enough to use one pair of students in the study, but two pairs were used in order to acquire more data (Norris, 1998). More students could help gather more information on the significance of task repetition, development of fluency, accuracy, and complexity. Firstly, the first student of each pair was given three similar pictures with the objective of comparing the descriptions given by each of these students. The second student of each pair was advised to help the first student guess what the pictures were. This was done with the aim of getting numerous descriptions relating to the pictures presented to the pairs of students. Students were free to choose words that they felt were appropriate to describe the pictures presented to them. They had the freedom to think of the appropriate words that they could use to describe the pictures correctly. In addition, students were also free to choose the structure of words to use in describing the pictures. Mayo (2006) asserts that this was vital in the determination of whether students were achieving a high level of accuracy in the use of different words of the English language. In the next case, the second student of each pair was given other three similar pictures and the first student had to assist in the description. After ten days, the same task was repeated with the same pairs of students using the same procedure. Different pictures were used in order to determine whether there was an improvement in the students’ description of the pictures.