It is evident from first reading chapter 1 (water resources), one of the basic commodities that every living thing cannot exist without water. Although water is considered as a free resource, many areas in the universe have inadequate water to satisfy the entire population. It is an indication that scarcity of this resource will become more significant as pollution industries flourish. As 21st century unfolds the demand of water usage increases, billions of people are competing for water with animals. As the demand increases, difference over right to utilize water also turn out to be more regular and pungent. Many governmental and nongovernmental organizations are looking for various method and techniques, which can promote the provision of water to the entire world economy. In spite of the fact, that people are getting civilized, many of them have limited access to water resulting to poor living standards ((U.S.) 1968).
As indicated in reading one various practices can increase the scarcity of water in the future; for example, deforestation. Water pollution has destroyed the inhabitants of animals living in the water. This animal is a source of food to human beings. This however shows a sign of hunger in future. In this century human beings use water in agricultural irrigation. The extensive use of water has threatened the right of other individuals. Irrigation has led to the increase of the population. The population increases because of adequate food. Nevertheless, basing my facts from the fast reading availability of enough water has led to good social, economic and political practices. These practices reflect the development of the world economy (Biswas 2003).
Due to future increase of the usage of water, major practices have been enhanced that will ensure that there will be no problem. The government, nongovernmental organizations and multinational bodies have set up measures that will help to conserve water. As people are getting civilized, it is important to educate them on good practices to conserve water and use it effectively and efficiently. One of the practices that have been put in place is the construction of dams; like. The constructions of these dams have brought very many benefits to the world economy. For example, the construction of the Kariba dam in Zambia has led to the development of the country economy. As indicated from reading one Kariba dam is used in generation of hydroelectric power that is used as light as well as energy to drive machines in the industries.
However, these practices can have very many challenges, like displacement of the people. As we have seen in the first reading the people who were residing in that area definitely had to be pushed from that area. It is in this reading that argues that water should be used efficiently. Creating a water site is very expensive, so the government and any other supporting groups should make sure they have considered human factors; like the resettlement of the displaced.
Professor Thayer Scudder, the world leading dam resettlement expert narrates a story where he chronicled a social catastrophe set off by a dam. It was the largest manmade dam, and formed the largest reservoir in Africa. The dam was financed by the World Bank, which lavished on it the largest loan in the first decade of its history. The dam caused a lot of relocation and resettlement of the displaced people. This dam led change in social and environmental and cultural factors in the area. However, Scudder realized that the dam had disintegrated the culture of Tonga people. Other than these, the people in the area got demoralized, angry and hungry as there was not a sudden positive impact on their livelihood (Scudder 2005).
Another fact is that the construction of the dam has led to creation of river projects like Dez river project, Volta river project which are used for irrigation purpose. These practices reflect improvement of living standards of people. In addition to this, it is a sign of economic development.
From second reading two chapter 1 (the war on tap water) reflects a theme of change in 21st century. A narrated in this reading tap water is very essential I any corner of the world and at any time. Substantial evidence shows that, water is a basic commodity for a human being to exist. The football match between University of Central Florida and UCF Knight Football team shows the importance of water as we see 18 guys taken to hospital and sixty more treated by campus medical personnel. Although there was bottle water, it was not enough. As a result the students demonstrated so that the University could look at it swiftly.
Inferring from this point of view, there was a need to add more fountain taps in the stadium so as to prevent future occurrence of this incidence. It is during this time, a debate between bottle water and tap water arose. Rapidly, public water has vanished and bottled water is everywhere. The entry of bottle water in the market has indicated a theme of change in the lifestyle of people in the universe. In the city of London in the mid 1800, water was started to be channeled to the wealthier inhabitants while the deprived relied on private merchants and wells that were tainted and contaminated by diseases like cholera.
In the 21st century the usage of bottle water has greatly increased, this reflects civilization of people in the universe. In fact, this is reflected when a statistic conducted by the US department of agriculture economic research service and the beverage marketing shows that many of the Americans drink more bottled water than beer or milk. However, bottled water has encountered some challenges, where some a small percentage of people are saying tap water is the best. Industrial campaign has been conducted all through to market tap water. This is evidenced when we see coca Cola Company disclose that it had an official plan to keenly deject restaurant clients from consuming tap water.
From second reading chapter two (the war on tap was setting the stage for corporate control of water) privatization has played a very big role to the success of 21st century. Privatization is the conveyance of ownership or control from the public sector to the private sector. The public sectors in the 3rd world countries are not up to date to provide water and sanitary services to the entire world economy, thus I support privatization, which will ensure that these facilities are running adequately because people are paying for it and will create revenue through taxes for the government. However, about 40% of the people living in the 3rd world countries are living in poverty, i.e. they are unable to provide basic necessities.
However, many governments have identified privatization as a good strategy that can wipe out this vice. But this idea has been used by the individuals to satisfy their own needs, they claiming it should be an economic commodity. Increasingly, very many policies, standards have been formulated to deal with this vice, but we are still lagging behind a time continue. As a way of solving this problem, Water Brief on March 2003 Kyoto World Water Forum was formulated to address this vice and protect public interest. In this era, water industry is consolidating and evolving faster as one source indicated that Global water service market is a 260 billion market growing at 6% per year. Other than this, we have seen government agencies coming in, to determine how we can cope with this vice. Privatization has brought both positive and negative aspects in the society. It is evident that, many water providing companies are misusing office power to satisfy their needs (Glennon 2009).
Due to this, a set of principles and guidelines have been formulated to guide any privatization efforts. Despite of Principles, we have experienced very many challenges such as, not all organizations given this priority can be able to apply. A research conducted this year shows that private companies now provide 95% of the water and waste water services as compared to 12 years ago, which was 10% of the population. The importance of improving water and sanitation services is undisputable thus both the community should jointly look upon various measures that would reduce this vice. As described in the new economy of water the potential demerits of privatization are greatest when the government is unable to meet the basic water needs. Generally, privatization increases when the government is unable to provide water services and decreases when it has the capability of providing efficiently and effectively.
The earth has been affected by the global warming this poses a great danger to the human beings .An increase in the global worming of the earth shows that an increase in 2 degrees Celsius shows that almost half percentage indicates that 20 to 30 species would be in a danger of becoming extinct. Also large percentages of forests will disappear drought will prevail, the polar ice will melt, most islands will be submerged in water an there will be an increase in the temperature in Africa. World food production will go down resulting into hunger .Trough capitalist system the earth is converted into a raw material and humans as consumers. And they are perceived for what they own and what them area declaration of rights to the mother land. It’s also noted that developing countries contribute much to climate change and should try and honor all climate sensitivity in all dimensions. They should follow the set rules governing this issue.
From 3th reading chapter two (fear of tap water), the cleaning of the water continued, waste products from the industries was treated. It is clearly evidence in this chapter that the water contaminated with pesticides should be purified to avoid diseases to both human beings and animals. The quality of water in the US took a different step in environmental revolution. In the 1960’s accumulated sewage, pollution, trash and oil were killing their rivers and lakes. In the late 21st century it is evident that tap water in the US was not safe for human consumption. The US government started replacing the old pipes and improving treatment plants.
Another technology came which is the development of management system that was used to monitor the municipal operation in the field of water. The bottle industry increased tremendously. It is from this reading we conclude people are getting civilized in many parts of the world. In this century the people use bottle water for drinking whereas the tap water is used in the industry in processing of raw materials into finished goods. In addition this tap water is also used in agricultural activities. Tap water is use in domestic purposes such as cleaning of the utensils, washing the houses. Other than this it is also used by domestic animals and wild life.
From 3th reading chapter four (if it is called Arctic Spring why is it from Florida?); I base argument with Poland Spring. Poland Spring was later rebranded and claimed health benefits. In order to provide some lend a hand to the consumers the US food and drug administration had to keep an eye on a set of labeling rules. The US FDA came up with rules to guide the usage of bottled water; however these rules and standards are conflicting and inconsistently applied. Labeling the bottle showed much about the water. These reflect the time for development in the 3rd world countries.
From 3th reading chapter five (the cachet of spring water), it clearly reveal that the high technology has helped greatly in that the people are able to primordial and simple tasks like drawing water from a spring.
From 4th reading chapter two (people agreement acuerdo puebros) human beings in the earth are faced with an immense challenge of stopping global warming. The main area which has been affected by these changes is the agricultural sector. Agribusiness association with other agencies has rejected free trade which only worsens the hunger. Demands for all human beings in the mother land earth have right to access in water. In short all the climate change rights should be revised so as to be able to react to all climate changes in the mother earth (Osterburg and Ward 2007).
From 4th reading chapter two (The water warriors fight back) Water can be taken into two perspectives, can be seen as a commodity which should be placed in the market and sold. Water can also be perceived as a public trust and also as a common heritage and as a fundamental of human beings. There has been fight between these two sides that refers sea water in these different angles. Water privatization was first undertaken in the Latin America in the developing countries other countries following such as Mexico, Bolivia Argentina etc. Failure in these projects has been contributed to by rejection of free trade which has led to retreat by most countries.