Ethnographic survey is simply a survey, which is designed to gather information on interpersonal and social phenomenon. Therefore, different tactics are used to get to the root of different issues related to sociology and culture. It involves collection of information with a help of questionnaires and interviews, sample representations, assumptions, and surveys. This paper seeks to critically review three different research methods.
Theory and Practice of Ethnography
Ethnography is qualitative research method that is used to research or explore different social and cultural studies. It is important to note that different research methods are used to collect data from ordinary activities or social settings. These methods are used to detect or define important relationships that help to create knowledge about the same. In this case, every research method must be flexible in relation to social structures and logical patterns. Therefore, observations should be neutral and unbiased. Ethnography simply means the study of people. Therefore, this research method interprets, defines, and explores culture, society, and behavior of people.
Ethnography is a research method that tries to study human relationships in relation to responsibility imposition, interaction, and other situations. Theorizing about people helps to build theories and answer questions about different social and cultural issues. In this case, reflexivity is used to create ideas and raise questions in relation to the same. Therefore, the research is based on subjective components, which are assessed and framed using different methodologies. It is important to note that methods used in this case are simple tools that are used to record data, make observations, and survey data collected at a particular time. It is important to note that ethnography is a research method that focuses on dominated studies, identifies system networks, and studies social settings, key concepts, and theoretical frameworks (Madden 2010).
Blending Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches
Recently, there has been a very interesting social research innovation, which combines quantitative and qualitative methods of research. Important aspects in this research analysis are gathering public opinions to answer research questions, choosing appropriate sampling techniques while choosing the best research technique, and suggesting topics for future studies. It is important to note that qualitative research helps to address different problems, which are related to social integration. This approach is not only appropriate but also beneficial for research about social life. However, the big question is whether these social studies are theoretically useful. The best way to determine whether qualitative and quantitative approaches are useful is to bring up critical questions and problems related to this question. This will allow to find ways to solve and address the problem. The best method to use in addressing and solving this problem is triangulation theory, which involves team work and partnership in evaluating different perspectives. The other method is investigator triangulation, which involves interpretation of data in order to determine different viewpoints. The third method is methodological triangulation, which involves studying a single problem using multiple research methods.
It is important to note that the concept of triangulation in qualitative and quantitative approaches is based on different assumptions. This simply means that triangulation helps to identify and overcome limitations and weaknesses of a research. The elements used in qualitative and quantitative approaches use different rationale and different research methods. This simply means that the method involves a combination of elements, which provide wider and better possibilities. There are many reasons why it is important to combine qualitative and quantitative methods. The reasons include facilitation of the research, interpretation of relationship between variables, determination of the structure of research process, bridging the gap between the micro and macro research levels, and use of a longitudinal approach to research from different methods. Therefore, studying different variables helps address different issues related to the research.
Levels of Research in Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods
Quantitative and qualitative research methods can further be classified as a framework of divergent approaches, which include identifying research problems and questions, designing the strategy, choosing the best sample for each case, analyzing data, interpreting the results, and drawing conclusions. Research operations and data collection dimensions are established to evaluate techniques, ensure validity and reliability of a research, and establish techniques to develop data collection. In this case, both quantitative and qualitative research methods allow combination of different ideas and ideals in social research in order to study important aspects and develop knowledge related to the methodology framework (Vanderstoep & Johnston 2009).
Designing, Conducting, and Presenting Research
Any research method involves choosing fundamentals through a process of proposing a topic, selecting and identifying a research method, describing data collection method, and applying other forms of ethnography research. Designing, conducting, and presenting research carefully is very important because it involves description of an overall experience, data collection methods, leads to making ethnographic notes, identifies issues and themes, designs interviews, and plans participation in observations. It is important to note that ethnography is a general research concept that uses assumptions and different data collection methods to obtain different types of information in relation to human behavior. However, the research does not in any way influence the aspects or situations under study. This simply means that it is a controlled study, which takes a form of an experiment aimed to discover different aspects about human behavior. Therefore, this research process aims at recording and discovering different types of information obtained through different methods such as surveys, assumptions, and understandings of the same. This ensures that all relevant information regarding human behavior is gathered and understood. Thus the primary focuses is put on the most relevant studies.
Observation is also a very effective method in ethnography. It includes observing conversations, interactions, behaviors, experiences, or events. In this way, the researcher is able to get insight into many different details. At this point, ethnography is seen as a research instrument which records and collects information. However, research findings should be ethical and productive.
Ethnographic surveys are a very important aspect of ethnography discipline, which reflects traditions and customs of a particular group of people. In this case, the survey may be carried out in three different methods: theory and practice, blending qualitative and quantitative approaches and design, and conducting and presenting research. In all three methods ensuring objectivity should be the first step in research surveys or findings. This simply means that all assumptions and presumptions should be collected from effective, unbiased, and reliable sources. Therefore, personal feelings must be put aside in order to avoid conflicts and bias. Carrying out interviews is an effective tool in all three research designs. This is because they enlighten researchers on issues related to questions and problems, which affect people’s lives. However, questions must be simple in order to ensure that people understand them and are able to give full answers.
Participant observation is also a very effective method that is used in all three ethnographic methods. Participant observation includes a process in which the interviewer visits the community with the intention to obtain knowledge about the same. However, the researcher must maintain relationships with people, live within a particular context, participate in different activities in the community, and take note of all experiences within the community. In this way, the researcher is able to gauge the difference between theoretical assumptions and what is really done in the community.
A survey is also an important part of ethnography research and is used in all three methods. Surveys should be created or crafted to capture beliefs and opinions of people in the community. However, people's opinions should be specific. Surveys should be developed for the purpose of obtaining information about demographical characteristics (Murchison 2010).
All three methods should include tools, which ensure participant observations, qualitative research methods, and other technical information. In this case, all interviewing tools should be an effective source for citations. Important and necessary parts of the interview must not be overlooked but should be given priority. Participant observation tools are essential in all three methods of ethnography. This is because these tools present a way to track observation records. However, all information should be correct and reliable. This will ensure that the research carried out is effective and successful.
Ethnography is a data collection method, which helps to capture ordinary activities and social meaning within a community. In this case different methods of data collection are used to facilitate and allow in-depth research to obtain valuable information. In this way, researchers explore different ways in which to reveal common characteristics among cultures and within communities. Ethnographic methods use different disciplines and follow different steps to get results. These steps include: designing, conducting, and presenting research,blending qualitative and quantitative approaches, and analyzing theory and practices of ethnography.