The legal foundation of higher education in Germany is given by the Framework Act for Higher Education with the legislation concerning colleges of art and the legislation concerning Fachhochschulen of the federal statesin so far as the kinds of institution are not incorporated in the general Higher Education Acts. Throughout the restructuring for the upgrading of the federal system, along with other things, the Federation’s structure accountability in the scope of higher education has stopped to exist. The Federation has started lawmaking procedures to annul the framework act for higher education. Included in the simultaneous legislation of the essential law, the federation keeps on being accountable for the scopes of admittance to higher education institutions. Training in University of Munichis governed by the laws in force in the individual faculties, the training regulations and the examination regulations of the appropriate department (Kubow & Fossum, 2007).
Ongoing occupational education at the university is governed by education legislation, the training regulations and examination regulations of the individual federal states in particular. Training in a number of occupations in the field of health sciences at the university within the health sector, rules under federal law are valid in agreement with the occupational schooling policy .The schooling policy and examination rules for a good number of occupations in the health sector, nevertheless, belong to the area of accountability of the applicable ministries in the federal states proficient for health or learning.
In enacting the necessities of the Bologna process, Germany has accomplished clear development over the previous years. The number of German students out of the country has risen from some sixty five thousand in 2003 to over ninety thousands in 2007. The number of successive study courses for bachelor’s and master’s education offered at higher education institutions has augmented from sixty percent in the winter semester 2007/08 to seventy nine percent in the winter semester 2009/10. The process has been successful in increasing the class size with more students being admitted in the university. The philosophy and structure underlying the management of the institution has laid the foundation that has helped in bringing about achievement of educational goals in the institution. Standards of education have improved for both German students and students from other countries. The curriculum models currently in place have been successful and are currently being reviewed to improve them. Generally the university has been a centre for professional development in all the faculties provided in the institution (Sergiovanni, 2004).
A new graduation system of bachelor’s and master’s degrees has been adopted for the past few years in universities and comparable institutions of higher learning. The structural strategy applicable for all federal states assumed by the repute discussion of the ministers of education and cultural affairs forms the foundation for the official approval. The structural rules includes, along with others, to the structure and study duration. They specify that bachelor’s degree courses, as the courses which bring about the initial degree qualifying for entry into a profession. It must therefore give the educational base, practical skills and credentials related to the professional field. In addition, the structural strategies differentiate between more research-targeted master’s study courses and more practice and field practice oriented ones.
Colleges of art and music
Qualifications in higher education in the colleges differ according to the period and type of course in question. Studies at the college are completed by a detailed academic examination to evaluate the students. In admission, colleges of art and music necessitate evidence of the senior education entry qualification and of significance, an artistic aptitude. In most federal states, solely artistic courses, for instance, those which are not for potential teachers, also include applicants without evidence of higher education entrance qualification. This occurs only if they demonstrate extraordinary artistic creativity talent (Mazurek & Winzer, 2006).
Those students applying for programs at the vocational training in collegesneeds a general or subject- confined higher learning entry qualification. This is conducted depending on the rules in force in the exacting land or federal state and a teaching agreement with an appropriate training establishment. Depending on the legislation of a particular land, students with professional qualifications but lacking the higher education entry prerequisite can enroll for entrance assessment. However, the rules regulating admission to higher learning institutions for people in employment applies. When the instruction agreement has been finished, applicants are registered at the college by the organization accountable for training (Simonson & Zvacek, 2009).
The educational period at the colleges and related institutions is usually separated into semesters. At the colleges, the summer semester runs for six months, the winter semester also last for six months. Learning in the winter semester is generally done from late September and early October till mid or late February at the colleges and universities. During the summer semester, lectures are held from mid April until mid July at the colleges and universities. A period of approximately three months with no learning at the collegesand enables students to have time for private study and time to get ready for classes, finish essays, participate in practical work experience and sit for examinations, all which is part of learning (Kubow & Fossum, 2007).
The philosophy and structure essential to the organization of the colleges has laid the basis that has aided in achieving the educational goals stipulated in the mission of the colleges. The federal statesmay, at their own judgment, stipulate learning fees on students. The welfare of low income groups of students is taken into account to preserve equal learning opportunities for all. There has been a significant improvement in the standards of education for both German students and students from abroad. With a successful curriculum models currently in place, the colleges are striving to improve its training performance. In general the colleges have been a centre for professional growth in all the programs offered (Owens & Vale sky, 2007).
Continuing education and training
Studies reveal that there is a universal social conformity that lifetime learning including continuing education is assuming a significant role in today’s information and knowledge society. Accordingly, in the ministries of education and cultural affairs of the federal states there is an agreement that continuing education is an essential part of the education system. Special emphasis is given on individual growth within the compass of lifetime learning. Increasing significance is being attached to collaboration between all those groups functioning together in the field of ongoing education. Simultaneously, the suggestion emphasizes the rising significance of new information and communication technology as an effectual instrument for organized learning. Moreover, this is characterized by a person taking accountability for his or her learning course.
In Germany, continuing education is governed by the state to a lesser extent than other structures of education. The varied and rapidly changing demands on continuing education can best be taken care of by a structure which has the features of diversity and rivalry among the institutions and the range of courses and services offered. This is the given justification for lack of state involvement. An essential standard of continuing education courses is that attendance should be voluntary so that the participant can fully benefit from the course. The actions of the state in the area of continuing education are, in most cases, restricted to putting forth principles and to providing rules pertaining to organization and financing aspects (Owens & Vale sky, 2007).
The philosophy and rules are protected in the legislation of the federal government and the federal states. The state policies’ objective is to establish a universal circumstance for the most favorable growth of the involvement of continuing education to lifetime education. The system and structures for the continuing education division have been enacted at nationwide level in some particular legislation. These includes the social security code, career development education promotion act, the vocational training act, the handicrafts code , the federal training assistance act and finally the law on the protection of participants in distance education (Owens & Vale sky, 2007).
The fundamentals and philosophy for the encouragement and financial support of continuing education are stated in continuing education statute law and service release legislation. Continuing and grown person learning legislation shows continuing education as a self-governing education division which entails continuing universal and political education and ongoing occupational guidance and the growth which is entirely the accountability of the public sector. Continuing learning statute law assures a miscellaneous range of institutions preserved by various organizations and prescribes a state approval process for institutions of that nature. The majority of the policies include independence of curricula and staff selection. Besides continuing education rules and regulations, school legislation at federal states has a system on ongoing education within the school system for instance the achievement of school finishing qualifications.
The philosophy and structure necessary for the coordination of the continuing education and training programs is the fundamental requirement for achieving the learning goals today and in the future. The standards of education are likely to advance for both German and non- German students pursuing the continuing education. The curriculum models currently being implemented are likely to be successful. Generally the institutions structure and philosophy is the guiding principle behind the success of continuing education and training courses offered in the institutions.