Freire claims that education is like banking which helps in solving problems. Throughout the story, he sees education as a bank. He says that during a lesson or a lecture, students are required to memorize all that is taught. They are made to give it back to the teacher in the exam time. He refers to this as ‘regurgitation’ since no new concept is retained by students. Students cram what they are taught and reproduced the same to satisfy the teachers. It does not add value to the students’ intellect. It is never of any help to them.
He also raises an issue of teachers assuming that their students are just passive individuals in the education process. This makes them assume full control of the class by determining what is to be learnt, and the methods are to be used in the education process. This makes the process looks like a forced feeding of students. He claims that learners need to be treated as conscious participants in the education process. The learners should actively participate in the education process since they are on the receiving end.
Regarding student participation, Freire proposes that the banking approach should be replaced with the problem posing approach. In this method, students are given issues then made to look for answers. They will be able to use the theories and lessons learnt to come up with new ideas. He says problem solving approach is better than the banking approach as the latter makes the students to just store the knowledge given to them and wait to give it back to the teacher during exams.