Chapter 16

A lot of development was experienced in the west after the civil war. A lot of industries emerged that provided market for the increasing agricultural production. There were a lot of migration to the west some captivated by the enticement of gold and silver. Later the west railway was constructed and this changed the lifestyle of the Americans as travel was made very easy. The railroads aided the growth of Industries in the west. The railway made it easier to bring farming supplies, coal, and other significant materials (Carnes & Garraty, 2002).

Later, the Indians migrated to the west and were called the plain Indians. Indian wars occurred later and ended with the destruction of the tribal life.

The government attracted the natives to migrate to the west with the promise of huge pieces of land and participation in huge business.  A new cattle business emerged later especially in Texas with typical farmers owning a lot of cattle. In the west the cattle were cheaper compared to the east where they were tens time expensive. Later open range ranching was introduced and ranchers noticed that they earn more if they drove them to the east. This caused an uprising by some Native Americans as cattle went through their farms. Barbed wire ranching was later introduced to solve some of the problems experienced by the natives (Carnes & Garraty, 2002).

Compared to the times of the civil war, the standards of living of the Americans changed. The introduction of the railway increased locomotion of people and goods. The population increased and cities continued to grow. The lives of the Americans changed. The changes that took place in the west were related to the economies as it was primarily agricultural economy and later started to rely on technology.

Chapter 17

A lot of industrial revolutions took place in America in the late 19th century compared to any other era. During this time, the state sailed through speedy expansion. Some of the changes were development in social economic status of people. However a lot of modern comforts came in the last quarter of the 20th century. The growth and expansion of railroads and transport was the one utmost transform in the 19th century. This was something the natives could not live without since it brought a lot of conveniences. This was a great accomplishment, as many people and products used in the construction of the railroads could be transported easily. To construct railroads, trees were cut down to lay the rail tracks. Other requirements included the iron, coal and labor to build the rail. Coal and wood were required to run the trains, and many people were needed to build the railroads. The development of railway however caused a lot of Competition and Monopoly in business especially the Railroads, steel industry, oil, retailing and utilities sector.  This caused some mixed feelings among the Americans about the big businesses. The government also reacted to the big business by regulating the rail industry and formation of the Sherman antitrust act. Later labor movements became rampant. Railway, however, was indispensable to the growth of economy with the industrialist becoming entrepreneurs (Carnes & Garraty, 2002).

Railroads also changed the lifestyles of many Americans. It diversified their eating habits as foods could be taken to places that it could not be produced. The health and their standard of living were improved as the fresh produce was available in all seasons.

Chapter 18

During the industrial age, introduction and growth of rail farming instruments became mechanical, such as the reaper. The mechanized equipments could yield more labor than human workers. This is resulted in the division of labor and specialization. In turn the emergence of skilled and unskilled workers began.  There was a lot of competition for the working class and therefore working the way up trend was introduce. After the ending of civil war, the people of the southern noticed they had practically no industry. The textile industry was an easy target and beneficial as there was a lot of cotton. The industry also called for cheap labor that was readily available (Carnes & Garraty, 2002).

Generally the American society begun to change as the working class were changing their approach towards life. Non working women began to look for working opportunities in the industries. There were new people migrating into the country from other countries of the world. Cities were growing very quickly to accommodate the growing populations of the Americans and the immigrants. As a result of speedy growth of the cities, a lot of problems resulted. These were as a result of urbanization and included inadequate resources like water, poor infrastructure like roads, increased incidences of crimes due to lack of enough working opportunities.

Later the government modernized the cities to accommodate the growing population. The leisure and relaxation places increased with more fun and games. Christianity begun to become rampant and people started to have mixed feelings about its teachings. The society became civilized and this caused some discontentment. There was increased housing problem and later outbreak of diseases like cholera (Carnes & Garraty, 2002).

Chapter 19

Intellectual and Cultural Trends

Development of intellectual and cultural trends came way after the end of the civil war. Emergence of colleges and universities came later and this increased the availability of skilled labor. The workers were trained in these colleges about new innovations. This increased the production of the industries. Education progressed in social sciences and philosophy and this in turn shaped the intellectual level of the American society. 

Study of law and history was initiated in these universities and colleges and later this contributed to the early justice system of the United States. Study of literature and linguistics also increased contributing to the development of American English. Art then became part of the American society with emergence of artistic works displayed in institutions and government museums. With the emergence of the realism in art, the pragmatic approach was appreciated by the American society (Carnes & Garraty, 2002).

People started to appreciate practical matters often in their work. Revolution in social sciences provided ample knowledge about the political situation of the time. The culture of people started to change gradually as more people were exposed to formal education. There emerged a new class of people regarded as intellects in the areas of philosophy, religion, social sciences and technology. The social, cultural and economic growth was evident during this period and this created the relationship between the Americans and their political system that exist to date (Carnes & Garraty, 2002).

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