According to Osborne (2006) the concept of civilization as a continuous chain of history is strengthened by revived interest in both the classical and renaissance worlds (p. 5). In this paper I will discuss civilization in Europe and Egypt. To start with European civilization we will assess the Romanesque, and on the other hand the Non-European civilization to be revealed is that of Ancient Egypt. However, there are different types of African civilization which involves the Ancient Egypt, Carthage, Kingdom of Kerma, Kingdom of Kongo, Kingdom of Kush, Macrobians, Meroë and Kingdom of Mutapa amongst other African civilizations. I am going to take you through each type of civilization from the time and period each civilization existed, their key features that made them unique from each other and a comparison between these distinct civilizations.
The main reason of writing about Romanesque and the Ancient Egypt civilizations is because they have been viewed for long as the most leading civilizations that have made great changes to the people that lived during the period they existed and their impacts is still being felt to-date as they attract many tourists and influence art and architectures from different parts of the world.
The Romanesque means “The Roman Descendants” and was first in existence in the 18th century, the year 1715 to be precise. The civilization was in existence in the western part of Europe before spreading to most of Europe introducing new architectural models in buildings and art. The Romanesque was established in Western Europe between the 18th century, and at the time of its existence it was not that influential till in the 19th century when it became more popular as its most of its architectural designs were adopted allover Europe, Its autocratic form of government enabled it to become a most stable civilization with large territories around Europe.
The Romanesque had exclusive means of communicating and conserving their culture; this was attained by use of art. Examples of the art used include; painting, sculptures and drawings, however these are just but a few categories in which the Romanesque used to show communicate and conserve their culture, some notable art works that were made by the Romanesque includes the following (Stokstad, 2007). The Gloucester candlestick a distinct sculpture crafted in the 12th century; this sculpture was made of curved bronze and it’s what today artistic experts call unique metal casting style, other significant pieces of art.
In page 216, the Romanesque used art in decorating a complete architectural design. An example is the decoration of the cathedrals a significant example is the Speyer Cathedral, and the way they decorated their cathedral is highly adopted in Italy, and its significant from the use of small pieces of arches that appear like supporting the roofline. The cathedrals were essential in duration and thus they presented quality design. This was the main reason why they were considered in Gloucester candlestick.
The Romanesque used art in different ways, and they made use of sculptural and manuscript. They made sure that the painting or the curving sent a specific message. A good example is the central figure of Christ in the tympanum of Vézelay Abbey that was curved in France, in the 1130s, a lot of decorative spiral details in it forms an example as the picture showed that Christ is Lord.
This civilization originated from Africa, North Africa to be specific, it concentrated along the Nile River, this form of civilization occurred in the period was established around the 3150 BC after the unity between the Upper and Lower Egypt under the influence of the first pharaoh and this unification went successfully through the three consecutive millennia.
It experienced invasion from foreigners who slowly contributed to its collapse, ending the pharaoh rule in the 31BC after the Roman Empire conquered Egypt(Ancient Egypt) and making it one of their province. The ancient Egypt had experienced a lot of achievements before its collapse some of these achievements included surveying, quarrying and construction techniques that made them to acquire great success in the construction of their temples, obelisks and monumental pyramids among other art works that were unique indicators of the Ancient Egypt that were widely copied in the entire world from days in memorial to date.
In Ancient Egypt art was used as a way of Communication, Decorating, and Skills and Showing an individual’s status, this is expressed through the objects and things around the artist object in the ancient Egyptians had a variety of artifacts that were very attractive and some include the following pieces.
One famous piece of art that was made in the ancient Egypt was The Bust of Nefertiti, a sculpture that was sculptured by Thutmose; this curving was a curving of the Great Royal Wife of the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaton, as she was a famous woman for her beauty, the bust is believed to have been crafted in 1345 BC. The ancient Egypt also used materials such as glass that were commonly known as faience, they were treated as semi-precious stones as they stressed some form of an individual’s status, other materials they used includes clay and non-clay substances such as silica, a mixture of lime and soda, beads and tiles.
The Ancient Egypt also used pottery to show case their cultural uniqueness, the New Kingdom pottery is a most significant model that was molded in the 1400 BC and was made by the ancient Egypt as this was a unique piece of art made from the a variety of soap stones and they would carve images of deities, animals, vases and other objects.
In both types of civilizations there is the use of cheap and locally available materials, such as the use of materials such as wood, clay and paintings. In both the civilizations they used art as a way of communicating, expressing ones feelings/ideas and symbolizing a given event or function to the other people.
Both the civilizations practiced high levels of creativeness as they all practiced unique designs that were original and were copied by other civilizations that came into existence after their apparent fall. They used art in showing the status of the individual who owns the piece of art as they used gold, silver and ivory in the construction of ornaments and artistic devices that belonged to the rich such as the kings and high-priests.
The ancient Egypt used art as a way of giving honor to the dead as they practiced art in the tombs were they buried the dead as a way of showing respect while the Romanesque used art as a way of showing their pride and this is experienced from their architectural works. These two types of civilization were in existence in different periods as the ancient Egypt was in existence in the 3150 BC while the Romanesque was in existence in between the 18th along to the 19th century.
Art has been used by these two different civilizations as a way of communicating with one another, through these artworks that it was easy to receive any symbolic message as the artist will be able to express his imagination clearly from the use of art, as this will entertain and educate the people who gets a look at the artworks, with this unique features that were being shown by the artworks it has been adopted and copied by many architects in existence several years after their collapse, I chose these civilizations as they have seen a lot of transformations and impacts in the modern civilization we are experiencing now, majority of modern artistic works ranging from art to architecture can be traced from the ancient Egypt and Romanesque arts.