During the period of colonialism, several factors hindered the sense of national identity on one part, while some factors were contributory to the promotion of this sense of national identity. These factors spanned from both social and political dimensions, while some were basically economical (Rosberg, 1970). The first factor that promoted the national identity was the freedom of worship. In consideration of this notion, the puritans went through persecution in the British territory, which called for a form of redress to provide a platform for worship without interferences. This led to the creation of the sense of national identity as the colonies intervened to provide a platform for pursuance of these religious rights. The liberation of worship centers through allowing growth of churches brought the sense of belonging to the natives, which culminated in the realization of sense of national identity (Rosberg, 1970).
Moreover, the “Great Awakening” spirit saw the colonialists get involved in defense against external aggression, which led to the promotion of national identity. In addition, the essence of external aggression was rampant as the rival colonies sought to expand their area of rule the expense of subjects for colonization (Eckstein, 2007). This led to rivalry wars, which made the colonizers realize the significance of using the colonized as the source of defense. Consequently, the white men had the ability to settle and own vast expanses of land, while influencing in the legal systems, which promoted the ideology of national identity.
However, the polarized political systems, social factors, such as chronic outbreaks and hostility amongst communities, hindered the sense of national identity (Eckstein, 2007). This was caused by the harsh living conditions that were unbearable to some of the newcomers, who could not endure the diseases, adverse weather and hostility amongst the natives. This led to the migration of the bases of rule with some resorting to return to the motherland as a resolve to end the unbearable conditions. Therefore, nationalism became a crucial influence at the time when there was a discovery of both cheap labor and source of raw materials in the colonized countries. Moreover, the competition between the rivalry colonizers escalated the need for acquaintance of nationalism as a form of expression of superiority in power (Rosberg, 1970).
On the other hand, the economic life of the colonies enforced strong links with the mother countries in terms of improving supplies of both raw materials and cheap labor (Rosberg, 1970). This led to the direct control of resources from the colonized countries as the colonizers acted as intermediaries for implementation of these economic ties. Moreover, embracing the ideology of nationalism among the colonies led to building up international trade relations through the stabilization of the motherland currencies. This promoted the economic ties as it led to the industrial revolution of the mother countries, which strengthened the economic ties (Eckstein, 2007).
The economic life of the colonies created barriers between England and the colonies in that the latter’s rates of remittance of funds acquired through trade were not at par with the expectations from the mother country. In real essence, the colonizers utilized the resources for their own sustainability as opposed to the earlier expectation of remittance to the mother land. This created the barriers in social ties with the mother countries as it contradicted with the expectations of these countries (Eckstein, 2007).
Consequently, the common impediment to the colonies’ development of commerce and industries was lack of expatriates in the prospective arena of development. The colonies did not harbor potential expertise labor for the launch of both the industrial and commercial revolution. Moreover, there was a resistance from the local communities over the rights of ownership of the land for development of industries and creation of blocks for commercial purposes (Eckstein, 2007).