In the 16th century, there was expansive increase in economic, social and political trends towards building strong nations that led to rivalry between absolute monarchs especially the case of France and Spain, and subsequently France and Austria until the diplomatic revolution of 1756 came about. All the European kingdoms such as England, France, Hapsburg, Roman and the Ottoman Empires, competed with one another over the Atlantic which brought a shift of power and wealth towards the west and the acquisition of colonies. In the beginning of the century, the boundaries were set along the four major kingdoms and this is what determined who will dominate in the next four centuries.  Each kingdom sought to gain dominance in the American region and to win its lands and markets. In 1517, a spark of reforms was started by Martin Luther who sought to shift the Christian faith to his ideas and made blazes across the whole of Western Europe for a century and a half.

Scientific developments

During the 16th century, the focus on accepting the reality led to the restoration of the study of natural world which led to exploration of the earth surface and beyond. As a result, many new discoveries and were brought back to Europe, from newly explored worlds like the America. Renaissance artists sought to understand their world better thus studied structures habits and functions of plants and animals extensively.  The fifteenth century’s medicine emphasized on use of vegetables as the best cure before the discovery of chemical medicine and almost all physicians were more of botanists. This was the time that best botanical books were produced in history. The foundation of present biology is thought to have emerged from Vesalius publication of 1543 in the book ‘on the fabric of human body’. During the renaissance, the rise and spread of printing also led to mass production of prints that facilitated the students learning and study.

Economic achievements

There was a varying degree in the emphasis of scientific book-keeping commonly called the double entry, this was particularly essential to the rise and development of capitalism. The rationalistic pursuit of unlimited profits would not have been so effective without the use of scientific accounting instruments. It was this notion of profit that made the idea of capitalism possible. The vital concept of capital as a worthwhile possession practically depended on scientific accounting analysis. By crystallizing and defining numerically this concept powerfully accelerated the notion of enterprise and entrepreneurship. New tools and new farming methods expanded the agricultural outputs that made some kingdoms more powerful than others. The advancement in technology improved the manufacturing sector that brought the inception of business.

Religious changes

During the industrial revolution that runs from 15th to 18th century, there are some of the notable historic events that took place at this period dominated by reformation and religious conflict. The post classical period stretches between the fall of the Roman Empire and the 15th century. It’s when civilization spread around gradually, the missionaries changed the European atheists and the medieval Europe took part in the international community. Due to this divide, quit a number of people got stranded and lost their faith; this gave room to opportunistic religions to prosper and win a reasonable congregation.

Social impacts

Early civilizations were experienced mostly in major cities and towns. For example, the increased power of papacy and the rise of German empire led to a church-state conflict. Social changes during the middle ages were such as the growth of towns and universities and recreation centers. In Western Europe empires growth was experienced with such as England France and Roman Empires and the coming out of independent Russia. Through colonization, ideologies, cultures and languages passed to the colonies. Growth and expansion of languages like French and English was witnessed while others like Latin died gradually.

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