The entire article is all about the history of United States since early 18th Century. The author talks about the evils that have been eating up the State and also the changes that have been occurring slowly down the line until the 20th Century. Some of those evils include racial discrimination, mob lynches amongst others. According to Booker T.’s speech we are able to learn that Negroes do not see the need of making friends. He further talks about the importance of making friends regardless of the race. He uses an example of a ship which got lost in the sea and by God’s grace sighted a friendly vessel-this is where we are told about “casting down your buckets”. We are told that the ship was much in need and the friendly vessel was willing to offer help .We should cast it down to make friends and not only that but also in other important related fields such as in businesses, agriculture, mechanics, domestic services and also in our professions.

He further adds that we should use our efforts not in condemning or mistreating the Negroes but in stimulating, encouraging and making them the most useful and intelligent citizens for efforts will be blessed twice.

The second speech is the Niagra Speech movement which mainly concerns racial discrimination .Here we see that discrimination is rampant. It is everywhere even in less expected areas. It is seen in railway and street cars based simply on cars and race. Such discrimination is protested. Laws are required in order to control the balance between the rich and the poor; control capitalist as well as laborers; control the white as well as blacks. Justice matters a lot and that’s why people believed in John Brown for his intelligence, spirit of justice, hatred of a lie, willingness to sacrifice money, reputation and life itself on the altar of right. Young men and women are called  to let alone these evil ways such as greed, snobbery and racial narrowness and stand up to their rights to justice.

We are told that the battle of humanity is not lost so there is need to have courage and not to loose hope because all across the skies sits a sign of promise. The lynch law in America is all about the miserable killings that have been happening in the state where you find one is mercilessly killed without complaint; this is where “unwritten law” are highly considered. One is killed without the opportunity of self defense or even the right of appeal. Some examples of lynches include: mob cuts off ears, toes, and fingers, strips off flesh, and distributes portions of the body as souvenirs among the crowd amongst others. We are further told that lynching gradually disappeared from the west but the spirit of mob procedure seemed to have fastened itself upon the lawless class, it thus took its root to the South where the centuries of Anglo-Saxon civilization had made effective all the safeguards of court procedure.

We also see that the Negroes were killed for resisting against the terms of contracts with their employers. If a few barns were burned some colored man was killed to stop it. If a colored man rose against the imposition of a white man and the two began fighting, the colored man had to be killed , either by the two  white men then and there or later at the hands of a mob that promptly  gathered at the scene. This shows beyond reasonable doubt that the ‘blacks’ were unfairly treated. We are further told that if the Negro shows a spirit of his courageous manhood, he was brutally murdered. We are told that a colored man could be easily lynched if he is charged with assault by a white woman-“unwritten law”.

From an annual statistic about lynching published by Chicago Tribune, of almost all  States, we are able to see that lynching is very high in the Negro descent and this shows that the Negro has suffered very much from the commission of this crime. The United States government has paid a lot of indemnities for lynching.

New nationalism commemorates one of the epoch-making events of the long struggles for the rights of man, for the long struggle for the uplift of humanity. In this second phase of United States history, John Brown is remembered and thanked a lot for he played a major role in the development of the State. We are told that a lot was done to bring the state to the position it deserves, very much that was done was good and much also evil and after a great struggle followed by sweet achievements it’s the high time for the people to forget about what had passed and to remember it without bitterness.

And from this endless struggle the nation rose from its barbaric lifestyle to civilization and people got encouraged and moved from one stage to another. And when it came to capitalization, supervision was highly required not only for public-service corporations but for all corporations. When it comes to our political institutions, they would prevent political domination of money only if it was perfect, so there is need to make of making the political representatives more responsive to achieve this.

The new freedom talks about the present, the today that the states have been longing to have. The life of America is not the life it was having 20 years ago, everything has changed starting from the economic conditions, and general welfare of the people. They no longer do things the way they used to do-styles of business, communication, things have changed. For instance, most parts of the countries men work not for themselves, not as partners like in the old ways they used to work but as employees. What was been looking for is finally achieved after all those years of struggle and tough times, progress!  

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