Homo Erectus

Asfaw, Berhane & Wendy, H.G. (2008). Homo erectus: Pleistocene evidence from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Berkeley: University of California Press.

This publication gives a descriptive account of the paleoanthropological resources of the Middle Awash of Ethiopia relevant to the studies of Homo erectus. The great rifts of the Eastern Africa acted as a natural hydraulic catchment for the early hominids- the forerunners of the humans. The presence of shallow ephemeral lakes in the broken terrain due to the constant tectonic activities, grassy sumplands, gallery forests, nutrient rich lakes, and stream margins provided favorable ecological systems that favored the evolutionary processes of Homo erectus into modern man in the Afar Depression of eastern Ethiopia. It presents photographs, hominid systematic, Homo erectus cranial anatomy and detailed analysis of the fossil vertebrates: elephantidae, hippopotamidae, rhinocerotidae, suidae, giraffadae, and other groups of carnivore.

Rightmire, G.P. (1993). The evolution of Homo Erectus: comparative anatomical studies of   an extinct human species. New York: Cambridge University Press.

This is a scholarly publication that discusses the evolution of Homo erectus over a period of time at different locations across the world particularly in Europe, Spain, Indonesia, Africa and China. Some of the sites where the author excavated substantial artifacts include Olduvai Gorge, Turkana, Sale, Ternifine, Zhoukoudina, Sangiran, and Trinil. The book further provides a rigorous overview of each and every artifact, their sketches, various views, discussion and analysis. The three dimensional measurements of the artifacts sampled from Chinese localities and Indonesia and Africa are entered in an inventory. For the purposes of comparative anatomy, the author documented trends in brain size for the Homo erectus for the period spanning 1.8 ma to 70,000 years ago.

Leakey, R.E & Allan, W. (1993). The Nariokotome Homo erectus skeleton. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

This book analyses the partial skeleton of Homo erectus and other discoveries in paleoanthropology made in their frantic efforts to trace Homo erectus in Asia and African for a century.  Descriptions and photographs of all parts of the skeleton and other accompanying analysis attached to images. Geology, dating, palaeoenvironments and taphonomy of the sites are also included by the author. Description of the specimen and analytical review of other Homo erectus specimens excavated from the regions surrounding Lake Turkana (Kenya, Africa). The analysis and carbon dating of the fossils is equally presented in a systematic manner.

Miller, F.P., Vandome A.F & McBrewster, J. (2009). Homo Erectus. Chicago: New York: Alphascript Publishing Press.

The book traces the origin of Homo erectus- the extinct species of the broader genus Homo, to Africa long before the subsequent members spread to Java and China during the Early Pleistocene. By the use of scientific evidence and comparative anatomy, the authors consider the species (Homo erectus) as the direct ancestors of the common man. Similarly, the book separates species which co-existed with the distinct Homo neanderthalis and a third branch which is a direct ancestor of modern humans. The migration of the H. erectus from the continent of Africa is attributed to the historic Saharan pump 2 million years ago and dispersed to China, Vietnam and Europe.

Jumain,R., Kilgore,L.& Wenda,T (2011). Essentials of physical anthropology. Belmont,CA:

Wadsworth. (Print) p. 231-243.

This book is fundamentally based on the principles of anthropology. It offers the best introduction to Human Evolution in Africa, Europe and China. Borrowing from the anatomy of various hominids, the authors conducts an elaborate research to connect various fossils excavated in different parts of Africa to evolution of modern man (Homo sapiens). The book further describes how carbon dating was conducted to estimate the period when these fossils came into existence. Other anthropological evidences are incorporated into the book to show the Homo erectus indeed is the direct ancestors of the modern man. Evolution tree and evolutionary dates are also provided to show how different members of the hominid evolved from each other.

Norton,J.C. (2010). Asian paleoanthropology: from African to China and beyond.

Dordrecht; Berlin: Springer.

The author attempts to disapprove some historical misconception that Homo erectus originated from the continent of Asia. Bu the use of paleontological evidences, the book explains that representatives of the Homo erectus and other Javan hominins found in the Java valley originated from the northern horn of Africa based on the findings of various research dating techniques. Taking dimensions and other physical characteristics of the fossils taken from both Olduvai Gorge and Awash valley of Ethiopia and Java Valley, the cranial feature and size of the brain of  the fosils taken from Java and other historical sites in China indicated that all the Javan hominins  originated from Africa.

Rightmire, G.P., Lordkipanidze, D & Vekua,  A. (2006). Anatomical descriptions,

comparative  studies, and evolutionary significance of the hominin skulls from Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia. J. Hum. Evol. 50:115–41

The journal contains structures of a variety of skulls and other fossilized body parts of the apes and hominids for comparative studies.  The book then gives a comparative analysis of how the cranial and other physical body structures evolved from each other depending on the modification of the primitive features and their respective ages. The hominin skulls from the historic Dmanisi Republic of Georgia provide important information on the classical patterns of human evolution. The publication links Homo erectus directly with the evolution of the modern man due to increased similarities more than any other hominin skull.

Wilford, John Noble (19 September 2007). "New Fossils Offer Glimpse of Human

Ancestors". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 May 2012.

Although the article borrows much information from scientific publications and findings from the Primate Research Center, is shows the high degree of similarities between a fossil representing Homo erectus and the modern man. The physical parameters the article takes into account include the cranial capacity, posture and bipedal gait. The article connects the newly discovered fossil (a representative of H. erectus) with the modern man- a gap that existing fossils fail to bridge at the time. At the bottom line, it is pretty clear the Homo erectus is the new fossil that offers a substantial glimpse on human ancestors.

Rightmire, G. Philip; Van Arsdale, Adam P.; Lordkipanidze, David (June 2008).

"Variation in the mandibles from Dmanisi, Georgia". Journal of Human Evolution 54 (6): 904–8.

The Journal of Human Evolution focuses much attention on the mandible of fossils in a bid to establish the evolutionary relations between hominids and apes. The journal provides measurements of all dimensions (height, length, width and surface) of the mandibles taken form various hominids and apes preserved at the Dmanisi, Georgia. Similarly the journal highlights shapes of the mandibles so as to establish any existing relations between different groups of hominid and apes.

J. Kappelman et al. (2008). "First Homo erectus from Turkey and implications for

migrations into temperate Eurasia". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 135 (1): 110–116.

The American Journal of Physical Anthropology discloses the similarities between the fossils of Homo erectus excavated from Turkey and those of the Eurasia. The physical and anatomical features presented in fossils from Turkey are primitive compared to those from Eurasia. These findings lead the authors and the team of researchers to conclude that Homo erectus migrated from Turkey as they moved to other interior parts of the Eurasia.

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