Neolithic Revolution

Introduction

Neolithic Revolution is the earliest form of civilization that took place in the 8000 B.C. (The Neolithic Revolution and the Birth of Civilization). Before the revolution, people relied on hunting of wild animals and gathering wild fruits. However, the intelligence of the Homo sapiens made them dominate all the other creatures as they had the ability to communicate through spoken language that facilitated high levels of cooperative behavior. The creation of simple stone hand tools enabled the human beings to hunt and kill wild animals for food as well as digging roots and tubers. The population had organized labor as men had the role of hunting and providing security while their female counterparts gathered fruits and prepared food as well as caring for the children. However, people began experimenting on crop growing as well as the domestication of animals and by 8000 B.C. people started shifting from the reliance on hunting and gathering to crop farming and animal domestication (The First Civilizations and Empires Prehistory AD-500). This essay seeks to examine how the Neolithic revolution impacted agriculture and trade in the past.

 
 

Impact of the Neolithic Revolution on Agriculture

Neolithic Revolution brought changes in peoples lives as it made them initiate farming and thus shifting from hunting and gathering (The Neolithic Revolution and the Birth of Civilization). The change, therefore, gave birth to agriculture that kept on advancing over the years to the modern farming. By 7000 B.C. sedentary agriculture was able to feed towns that had populations of over 1000 people and Jericho is one of them (The Neolithic Revolution and the Birth of Civilization). Some of the earliest domesticated plants were wild grains such as wheat and barley, and this began in the Middle East (The Neolithic Revolution and the Birth of Civilization). The more the society added new crops into the domestication list hunting and gathering faded slowly. The people began domesticating animals such as goats, pig, cattle and sheep among others and these provided milk, meat, wool and hide. The dog was also important as it gave company to the people as well as securing their homesteads and livestock. The cultivation of crops and livestock rearing, therefore, enabled people to produce their food through agriculture as opposed to reliance on wild sources.

The start of the Neolithic Revolution in the Middle East led to the spread of early agriculture to the rest of the world (The First Civilizations and Empires Prehistory AD-500) where the climate was favorable. For instance, Europe borrowed wheat and barley farming from the Middle East (The Neolithic Revolution and the Birth of Civilization). The agricultural system later spread from European Continent along the Nile River towards Egypt and by 2000 B.C.E, Africa in the south of Sahara Desert had adopted independent agricultural system mainly on tree crops and roots (The Neolithic Revolution and the Birth of Civilization). In China, early farmers grew millet while the South Asian counterparts grew rice and the Americans cultivated corn, manioc and sweet potatoes (The Neolithic Revolution and the Birth of Civilization). Regarding the above, Neolithic Revolution significantly affected early agriculture as it led to the spread of farming culture from the Middle East to the rest of the world.

The Neolithic Revolution also influenced agricultural technology as it led to the inventions and innovations related to farm tools and techniques. The farmers began developing plows and other farm implements as well as the seed selection and irrigation farming (The Neolithic Revolution and the Birth of Civilization). The farmers also built better housing for animals and stores for farm products. The development of tools and better housing improved the quality and quantity of agricultural produce and therefore boosting the availability of food. Neolithic revolution, therefore, helped to shape and develop, early agriculture on the above aspects.

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Impacts of Neolithic Revolution on Trade

Neolithic Revolution led to the led to the emergence and development of farming and, this made different communities to specialize on various crops such as wheat, barley, rice and maize among others (The Neolithic Revolution and the Birth of Civilization). The emergence of agriculture opened up the leather and clothes industry due to the provision of wool and hides. The specialization in production of various agricultural commodities brought inequalities between populations and thus to restore the balance, trade was necessary as people sought to trade their surplus with what they do not have (The Neolithic Revolution and the Birth of Civilization). Agriculture provided food for ancient towns such as Jericho and thus enabling people to engage in commercial activities as they had to buy food because in the cities there were no farms (The Neolithic Revolution and the Birth of Civilization). Through the above aspects agriculture, therefore, influenced early trade.

Conclusion

Neolithic Revolution brought changes in the ancient way of peoples living as it made them shift from hunting and gathering to crop farming and domestication of animals. The move significantly influence agriculture as it made people embrace agriculture and livestock as improving agricultural technology that led to increasing yields. The revolution also led to the spread of farming from the Middle East to the rest of the world including Europe, Africa, and America. Concerning early trade, Neolithic revolution increased the diversification of farming and led to the production of various crops by different communities as well as the manufacture of hides and wool for the clothes and leather industry and thus promoting trade between communities. Neolithic revolution, therefore, came as a blessing to both agriculture and commerce as it enabled people to produce farm outputs and sell their surplus.

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